Mimicked Western-style architecture (Japanese: 擬洋風建築) was a style of Japanese architecture which outwardly resembled Western-style construction but relied on traditional Japanese techniques. It flourished during Imperial period, and disappeared as knowledge of Western techniques became more widespread.
Since the Meiji Restoration , facilities with new functions, such as hotels, western style factories, elementary schools, government offices, hospitals, etc. will begin to be demanded nationwide in large cities at the beginning . These facilities that had Western functions and required robustness had to be built as Western style buildings . Major facilities such as guest houses and mint stations were hired and designed and supervised by the hands of foreigners , other government offices and rural facilities were entrusted to the hands of local carpenters.
However, for Japanese carpenters nurtured by the tradition of wooden architecture, western style buildings derived from stone are unknown existence. Under circumstances where even the architectural style and even its use are unknown, the carpenters who acquired the traditional technique interpret western style buildings from the traditional side and construct western style buildings by looking at themselves. A pseudo-aircraft architecture built based on information gained through viewing of nishikigei and buildings, based on the building that happened to meet that occasion, involves a free compromise and creation, although rough shapes such as towers and boarding are common Different designs were born in each building .
Pseudo-style buildings born in Tokyo based on Yokohama’s Western style architecture are drawn in numerous nishikigoes and call the public’s response . Meanwhile, in regions where the former political regime such as Yamanashi and Yamagata is strong, a government leader called civil engineering prefecture ordinance was sent by the government, and a government office based on pseudo-style building was newly built in parallel with the farming industry development policy . Also, an elementary school is built on the former site of the temple which was dismantled by the Buddha Buddhism . Pseudo-style architecture was a symbol of civilization opening as well as a monument symbolizing the transition of the control system .
Yokohama’s Japanese and Western architecture
Foreigner settlements established with the opening of the country, Western style buildings were lining up. Both settlements were occupied by colonial style around the veranda around Yokohama, but only in Yokohama, such as French Navy Hospital (1865) and French Army garrison (around 1864), including Western-style and Western-style The building of the building was built. This tendency is seen as a response to orientalism on the French side as it is also seen in Vietnam of the 1860s which was also influenced by France .
However, these buildings were destroyed by pig fire in 1866, and due to progress of urban development of settlements and the appearance of foreign architects, it was replaced by western architecture in full-fledged style . In Kobe, which opened in 1867, a full-fledged Western-style building was built from the beginning, and Hakodate which opened at the same time as Yokohama also has a tendency toward Westernization as a pioneer adopted American-style technology. However, in Yokohama alone, the sea cucumber wall remains as a simple fire resistant cover replacing the wooden stone masonry, and it was used for the British temporary museum (1867), etc. .
Architecture of Kiyosuke Shimizu
Yoshiaki Shimizu, the second generation who was chosen as one of the four contractors authorized by the shogunate, succeeding the carpenter • the first generation of Kiyosuke Shimizu who opened a store in Yokohama at the same time as the opening, is the American architectural technician Richard at Yokohama settlement Under Brigence , responsible for construction of British temporary military office. Kiyosuke Shimizu, experienced Western-style architecture, built two large Western-style buildings in Tokyo with Tsukiji Hotel Hotel (1868) and Maritime Bridge Mitsui (1872).
The Tsukiya Hotel Hall was a foreign hotel planned for the former shogunate period, and Budgens was responsible for the basic design. I have set up a triple tower that has made a decorative wall in the whole face and gradually reduced in the center. In the tower shop Huawei windows are opened, horseshoe is hung on the eaves and wooden nose on the front gate of the stone arch. The sea cucumber wall was in accordance with the basic design of BRIDGEN, but the detailed Japanese style design by Kiyosuke SHIMIZU .
Shipping bridge Mitsui group is a building for banks newly established by Mitsui . A roof folded complicatedly is placed on a Western-style 2-story garland with a veranda on the wooden stone. On the roof, we installed Tang and Windsters and stacked rectangular octagonal towers. In addition to the small tower on both sides. In the earlier plan, it was an ordinary roof orthodox Western style building, but with the hope of Mitsui group, it became such a stateless design .
These two buildings, which became the starting point of pseudo-ocean architecture, quickly became new sights in Tokyo, and they were depicted in numerous nishikigoes and spread throughout Japan . Some people who came to visit from the provinces had someone who struck Kashiwa or made a money offering . Kiyosuke Shimizu also constructed the Suruga cho Mitsui group (1874), which is an alternative to the maritime bridge Mitsui giants forcibly transferred to the First National Bank. Unlike Marine Transport Bridge Mitsui Gumi, it is neat Western style building, but the roof has been seduced , and this is also a theme for Nishiki .
Hayashi Tadakubo’s wooden government building construction
In carpenters who brought Western – style buildings derived from Yokohama, there was Tadashi Hayashi in addition to Kiyosuke Shimizu. Tadashi Hayashi who went through blacksmith and wood grinding, studied under Brigence at Yokohama and participated in the construction of the British temporary museum. After that, he was hired by a foreign dormitory, Thomas Waters of the Ministry of Finance headed by the Treasury Department to become a leading Japanese engineer. While Waters handles full-scale construction of bricks and stones, Hayashi Tadakita is the Ministry of Finance (1874), the Ministry of the Interior (1874), the Kobe Eastern Customs Office (1873), the dormitory after the station (1874), the Grand Judge (1877) It is handling the wooden government office building such as .
Looking at the contents of the building, it is not a woodbone stone like Bridgens or Kiyosumi Shimizu, but it is an abbreviation of woodbone stone made by painting plaster on ordinary walls and sticking only to the arch and cornerstone. The building’s shape also fits within a monotonous rectangle without the roof of Japan and the tower sticking out , and the big bucket with the pediment and the column pole is overhanging. The influence of Wartlus who likes paradianism is seen in such a constitution. As a pseudo-ocean architectural expression, it is quiet, but influence on the local government is strong as it is the construction of the central government agency, and the composition of paradianism breakdown which emphasized only the carriage has spread as a form of local government.
Wooden plaster primary school
Not only elementary schools but also local public buildings such as county government office, prefectural office, police station, etc. will be required to be westernized. The main buildings in Tokyo, Yokohama, Nagasaki and other places like the pseudo-ocean wind and the verandah colonial western style building, built elementary schools and government offices in the national government. These wooden plaster-finished pseudo-ocean winds, advanced from the pseudo-ocean wind of the woodbone stone system, were the most exciting in the three prefectures of Nagano, Yamanashi, Shizuoka in the Chubu region.
Especially excited especially in Yamanashi, a series of pseudo-owner-style buildings called Shimo Fujimura’s original Fujimura style architecture was built . Prior to Yamanashi ‘s assignment, Shuro Fujimura was a person who promoted construction of a pseudo – owner elementary school in Osaka after passing through Kyoto, the birthplace of elementary school, starting with Takumi School (1874) and Yanagi School (1874) It is building a pseudo-ocean building . Elementary schools with the form of a drum crown on the main body of the cube are not very common in other areas, but at about the same time as the Takumi school, Osaka’s Tokyo University’s 19th elementary elementary school (1973) and Shiga prefecture’s Nagahama From the fact that Kuroshio school (1874) is being built, this type of transmission source seems to be in Osaka .
Following Yamanashi, Shizuoka has foundation schools (1875), Boko Middle School (1875), Nishinoshima School (1875), Nagano includes Nakagome School (1875) and Kohchi School (1876) built. At the Banchi school, Tokyo and Yamanashi pseudo-ocean winds are referred to as design, followed by the Takashima School of the Suwa Basin (1879), the Mountain Single Critic School (1878), Yamabe School of the neighboring village (1885) and so on. Elementary schools built in advanced areas influenced the surrounding areas and wooden plaster series of pseudo-ocean wind spread throughout the country .
Pseudo-wind of the preview board
When the plastering series of pseudo-airstrip reached its peak, a pseudo-airstrip that paints and paints the preview board appeared and spread in the late period of the pseudo-ocean wind. The pseudo-airstrip of the baseboard style starts with Yamagata and Tokyo, but the influence from Yamagata is considered to be greater from quality and quantity .
In Yamagata, starting with Chosun school (1876), the masterpieces such as the prefectural office building (1877), the normal school (1878), the jogokan (1879) and the major works such as Nishidagawa gun government (1881), Tsuruoka police The station (1884) etc was built. The construction rush lasted five years from 1876 to 1881, and the main building only 28 buildings were built. In Yamagata where there was a technical exchanges between Sapporo and Tsuruoka, Western style architecture of the preview board was transmitted from the pioneering martial arts and such a pseudo-style building was built. Koyoshi Mishima who led the construction continued to build a pseudo-owner building of the preliminary board such as the Date county office in Fukushima (1883), the Minamiaizu county government office (1885), the Tochigi prefectural office building and others .
It was easy to make it with traditional wooden technique and it was easy to make Japanese pseudo-wind like the wind snow in the Tohoku three prefectures and Tokyo throughout the Meiji era, then it went through the entire Japanese island in the Meiji 20’s It is considered. A convenient Western pavilion of photograph houses and medical clinics remaining in the whole country is the descendant of the pseudo-airstrip of this preliminary board .
The end of pseudo-wind
It is a pseudo-owner-style architecture where highly original architecture was created, but in the latter half of the Meiji era it will come to take a similar shape. A tower shop is no longer established, and a format that provides two-layer carriage that receives triangle pediment at the center of the building of the second floor building of the building is generalized. This type of architecture was built at the same time without regional bias such as Honjo Police Station (1883), Higashi County Municipal Association High School Elementary School (1884), Uwajima Police Station (1884). The design of the pseudo-airstream that had produced diversity because of lack of information, as time goes by, information increases and it becomes standardized .
Also, the fact that the architectural form of the government building has been standardized has also been a factor to encourage standardization. During the period from 1877 to 1881, the prefectural government building construction cost became a national expenses, and the nation’s review was severely done at the time of new construction. As a result, the form of the Office of the Ministry of Home Affairs becomes almost the only option, and the formats are leveling. In July 1881, construction expenses were changed to local burden, but at this time the architect became involved in the design of the government building, and the era of pseudo-airstrip was heading towards the end .
For elementary school building, the school building law was enacted in each prefecture from about around 1877, and the concept of planning started to be introduced to school building. In 1890, elementary school equipment rules were established, school building explanation explanation and design comprehension was established in 1895, and school buildings guided in each prefecture until now were instructed in a unified manner by the government. As a result, the plane of the elementary school converges to a form in which several buildings in one corridor are lined up. In addition, since construction costs and repair costs are higher than Japanese style school buildings, construction of a pseudo-wind school building can be avoided. In this way, the design consciousness itself was rapidly lost from the elementary school building in Japan .
Furthermore, from around 1887 (Meiji 20) various modifications were applied to the pseudo-style building. The veranda originating from the southern origin and not matching Japan’s climate was fitted with indoor fittings and the plaster wall which was easily peeled because the eaves were shallow was covered with a clearance plate. The tower shop and the carriage, which are the biggest features of the pseudo-ocean wind, were also removed or altered to bring it closer to full-fledged Western architecture .
At the time, pseudo-airstrip architecture was called “Western style”, “Western style made”, “Western style home”, “Western style imitation” and so on. From the same era had been recognized as “imitation”, this was originally recognized as a substitute for wooden materials that should be made of masonry bricks, that is not imitation on the structure but structural imitation [ 17] .
After the latter half of the Meiji era, Japanese architects who graduated from the engineering department college began activities, and the architecture which directly photographed Western architecture was built. For the Meiji government wanting to resolve the inequality treaty with other countries, modernization was nothing short of hasty westernization . Amid these trends, pseudo-style buildings in the early Meiji era are condemned as embarrassing that lacks formal accuracy. In criticism, pseudo-owner-like buildings became recognized as being coherent, and subjects of imitation were replaced from structure to style .
In the Taisho era, movements to reevaluate western style buildings in the Meiji Era will be actively seen. During this period, when architects began to be more conscious of their expressions, pseudo-style buildings were also highly appreciated as the origin of originality.
After the war, pseudo-owner-style buildings are becoming attached to each other like a complaint by being evaluated as “looks good”. Even in the full-scale study of Meiji architecture beginning in the late 1950s, it was positioned as a childish imitation of colonial style. Pseudo-style buildings are designated as cultural properties since the 1960’s, but the cultural significance that contributes to modernization rather than the style was placed at the center of its evaluation .
In the 1970s, an active evaluation of architecture rich in originality that goes beyond imitation of the West is revived. Experts since then hate the word “pseudo-wind” to feel the nuance as a fake, making suggestions to replace it with another word.
Origin of words
Tomonobu Kuroda gave the style name “quasi-style” to the interior ministry office building in the photo collection “Tokyo Hundred Construction” in 1915, which is the first use example to refer to a pseudo-style building as a style .
After that, Saburo Horikoshi who carried out fundamental data collection in the reevaluation of the Western-style building in the Meiji era since the Taisho era called “Western-style imitation building 60th anniversary” (“Building and Society” June 1930) (VII) “(” Japanese architectural history “May 1931), the term” pseudo-wind “is used as a term to contrast with the architect’s designed architecture .
This word is inherited even after the war. The history of the first Japanese modern architecture written by Katsuno Sekino, “Architecture of Meiji, Taisho, Showa” (“World Art Collection” Vol.25, 1951) and Kiomasa Abe “Meiji no Architecture” History “vol. 8, 1956), the architecture that the Japanese engineer represented by Hayashi Tadakazu is handed is called” pseudo-style building ” .
Examples other than Japan
In the late nineteenth century, European countries advanced to East Asia and colonies were settled in various places. However, in Shanghai immediately after the opening of the port in 1843, despite the fact that a pseudo-wind-like architecture such as Jiang Sekuan with a Chinese style clay roof was built, in the Chinese and Korean Peninsula during the 19th century the pseudo- It is not seen. Since entering the beginning of the 20th century, a group of pseudo-wind-like architectures called Chinese baroque was built in China, Western style architecture of verandah colonial was built in Deoksugung in Korea too . Unlike Japan, it is believed that stone buildings and chair seats already existed in China and the Korean Peninsula, and there was elementalism to accept Western architecture .
Source From Wikipedia