The Filipino value system or Filipino values refers to the set of values or the value system that a majority of the Filipino have historically held important in their lives. This Philippine values system includes their own unique assemblage of consistent ideologies, moral codes, ethical practices, etiquette and cultural and personal values that are promoted by their society. As with any society though, the values that an individual holds sacred can differ on the basis of religion, upbringing and other factors.
As a general description, the distinct value system of Filipinos is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly Christianity) and commercial relationships.
Filipino values are, for the most part, centered at maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group. The main sanction against diverging from these values are the concepts of “Hiya”, roughly translated as ‘a sense of shame’, and “Amor propio” or ‘self-esteem’. Social approval, acceptance by a group, and belonging to a group are major concerns. Caring about what others will think, say or do, are strong influences on social behavior among Filipinos.
According to the anthropologist Leonardo Mercado, the Filipino worldview is basically ‘nondualistic’. Based on his linguistic analyses of Filipino value terms like loob (Cebuano buot), he concludes that Filipinos desire harmony, not only in interpersonal relationships, but also with nature and religion, while still remaining nondichotomous.
“The Filipino wants to harmonize the object and the subject, while at the same time holding both as distinct.”
— Elements of Filipino Philosophy (1974), Leonardo Mercado, SVD
Florentino Timbreza, a cultural philosopher, concludes in his book Pilosopiyang Pilipino (1982) that Filipino values are based on the significance of the world to man. Life experiences dictate the philosophy of the Filipino, augmented by other sources like proverbs, folk sayings, folk tales, and the like.
Models of the Filipino values
F. Landa Jocano identified two models of the Filipino value system. The first is the exogenous model or the foreign model, while the second is the indigenous model or the traditional model. The foreign model is described to be a “legal and formal” model. The indigenous model is described as a “traditional and non-formal” model or guide but is deeply embedded in the subconscious of the Filipinos.
The foreign model was inherited by Filipinos from Western cultures, particularly from the Spaniards and the Americans. An example of a foreign or exogenous influence is bureaucracy exhibited in the government of the Philippines.
Elements and composition of Filipino values
Based on studies, surveys, opinions, anecdotes, and other literatures made by experts and researchers in relation to Filipino social values or Filipino core values, along with the Filipino character or Filipino identity of a person or an individual known as the Filipino, the Filipino value system are found to possess inherent key elements.
One can note how Hiya (propriety/dignity), Pakikisama(companionship/esteem), and Utang na loob(gratitude/solidarity), are merely Surface Values—readily seen and observed values exhibited and esteemed by many Filipinos. These three values are considered branches from a single origin—the actual Core Value of the Filipino Personality—Kapwa. It means ‘togetherness’, and refers to community, or not doing things alone. Kapwa has two categories, Ibang Tao (other people) and Hindi Ibang Tao (not other people). The Surface Values spin off of the Core Value through the Pivotal Aspect of Pakikiramdam, or shared inner perception (“Feeling for another”).
Other notable key elements or motivations are optimism about the future, pessimism with regards to present situations and events, the concern and care for other people, the existence of friendship and friendliness, the habit of being hospitable, religious nature, respectfulness to self and others, respect for the female members of society, the fear of God, and abhorrence of acts of cheating and thievery.
The values of Filipinos specifically upholds the following items: solidarity of the family unit, security of the Philippine economy, orientation to small-groups, personalism, the concepts of “loob” or “kalooban” (meaning “what’s inside the self”, the “inner-self”, or the “actual personal feelings of the self”), existence and maintenance of smooth interpersonal relationships, and the sensing of the feelings or needs of others (known as pakikiramdam). In a larger picture, these values are grouped into general clusters or “macroclusters”: namely, the relationship cluster, the social cluster, the livelihood cluster, the inwardness cluster, and the optimism cluster.
Enumeration of Filipino values
This is the shared sense of identity and consciousness of the ‘other’. It means treating others with respect and dignity as an equal, not someone below the individual.
The basic and most important unit of a Filipino’s life is the family. Unlike in Western countries, young Filipinos who turn 18 are not expected to move out of their parents’ home. When a Filipino’s parents are old and cannot take care of themselves, they are cared for in their children’s homes and are very rarely brought by their children to Homes for the Aged. The practice of separating the elderly from the rest of the family, while common in Western countries, is often looked down upon in Filipino society. Family lunches with the whole clan with up to 50 people, extending until the line of second cousins, are not unusual. The Filipino puts a great emphasis on the value of family and being close to one’s family members.
Joy and humor
This famous trait is the ability of Filipinos to find humour in everything. It sheds light on the optimism and positivity of Filipinos in whatever situation they are in so as to remain determined in going through struggles or challenges. It serves as a coping technique, the same way a child who has fallen laughs at himself/herself to hide his/her embarrassment.
Flexibility, adaptability, and creativity
Studies show that Filipinos often have an aversion to a set of standardised rules or procedures; They are known to follow a “natural clock” or organic sense of time—doing things in the time they feel is right. They are present-oriented: which means that one attends to a task or requirement at the time it is needed and does not worry much about future engagements. This allows the Filipino to adapt and be flexible in doing the tasks at times not bound to a particular schedule or timeframe. This allows them think on their feet and be creative in facing whatever challenge or task they have even when it is already right in front of them.
Faith and religiosity
The Philippines is approximately 85 percent Christians (mostly Roman Catholics ), 10 percent Muslim, and 5 percent ‘other’ religions, including the Taoist-Buddhist religious beliefs of Chinese and the ‘indigenous’ animistic beliefs of some peoples in upland areas that resisted 300 years of Spanish colonial rule. This is a reflection of the Filipinos’ strong faith in God as seen in their various practices. This includes the numerous church holidays they observe, the customary (and obligatory) Sunday Mass, the individual’s basis of their moral standpoints, the influence of the Church on the minds, actions, and opinions of the majority, importance of the Sacraments, praying at almost any possible time of the day, the extreme practices during Holy Week,
Ability to survive
The Filipinos as a people who have been constantly under the rule of numerous powerful countries has over time, developed a sense of resourcefulness or the ability to survive with whatever they have. They have the extraordinary ability to make something out of almost nothing. If a Filipino was given just a screwdriver, plastic bags, and some tape, he would still be able to build a bird tree, especially for the sake of survival, and provided that he be allowed to hunt for some needed surrounding material.
Hard work And Industriousness
With resourcefulness comes hard work. Filipinos are very determined and persevering in accomplishing whatever they set their minds to.
Filipinos over the years have proven time and time again that they are a people with an industrious attitude. Sadly, this is seen by others as Filipinos being only useful as domestic helpers, working abroad to help their families in the country. This is also present in the country’s workforce particularly the farmers. Even with little support, technological weaknesses and the country’s seasonal typhoons, the Filipino farmer still strives to earn their daily meal.
Foreigners who come to visit the Philippines speak of Filipinos going out of their way to help them when lost, or the heartwarming generosity of a Filipino family hosting a visitor in their poverty-stricken home. Meanwhile, most foreigners who attend Filipino gatherings abroad (which are frequently organized for hundreds of reasons) testify to the warmth and friendliness of Filipinos as they experience that feeling of “belongingness.” Indeed, the legendary Filipino hospitality is not limited to the Philippines. It is everywhere wherever there are Filipinos.
In relation to parenthood, bearing male and female children depends on the preferences of the parents based on the expected roles that each gender would assume once grown up. Both genders are expected to become responsible members of the family and their society. Women in the Philippines are expected to become caring and nurturing mothers for their own children.
Female Filipinos are also expected to lend a hand in household work. They are even anticipated to offer assistance after being married. On the other hand, Filipino men are expected to assume the role of becoming the primary source of income and financial support of his family.
Models of Filipino customs
F. Landa Jocano and two models of the Filipino customs system. The first is the foreign model, and the second is the native or traditional model. Foreign model is legal and formal. The traditional model is formal and informal, but its roots are deeply rooted in Filipino consciousness. According to Virgelio G. Enriquez, Filipinos are more appropriate to study with the Filipino viewpoint to understand it fully, so it is best to use the native model of the Filipino customs review.
The foreign model is inherited in western cultures, especially the Spanish and American divisions . An example of foreign or foreign influence is the bureaucracy in the Philippine government .
Elements and made up of Filipino customs
Based on researches , studies, investigations, options, anecdotes, and other literary works of experts, linked to social or basic customs, as well as the personality, identity, and traits of Filipinos, have been found Philippine Organizations have a natural element. It includes a positive view of the future, negative view of current affairs, caring for others, kindness, hospitality, hospitality, self respect and respect, respect for women, fear of God , high-end fraud and robbery.
It can be seen that shame , association, and debt, customs found in most Filipinos, are just hypocrisy, linked to a central practice – both. Both are the unity of one’s self and another, and it has two categories: another person, and not another person. These hypocritical practices are related to the central Practice of Conduct by feeling.
Both women and men are expected to be sober and good members of society. Both girls and boys are also expected to help raise children in a family. Every family differs from the role of woman and man, anyone who can work, cook , or help at home , but usually women are expected to take care of the child and do household work, while men are expected to work and support the family in financial terms.
Common Filipino customs
Another is the concept of both words English to others because both the unity of self and others. This is the acceptance of another person as equal, and similar. The Filipinos deal with mutual respect and dignity as a person.
Becoming close to the family
In western cultures, you are expected to leave the parent’s home, live and support yourself when someone is 18 years old. Filipino customs are different: at the age of one Filipino, he still lives in his parents’ house until he is ready to have his own family. When the parent is old and unable to care for himself, it is anticipated that children care for them, the “Elderly Home” is rarely seen in the Philippines seen in western societies and cultures. Gatherings and meals with the whole family are also unusual in the Filipino culture. Families are so important to Filipinos.
Filipinos know how to joke in any situation. Even if the culprits do not fit into the situation, it reflects on the optimism and determination of Filipinos in the face of poverty. The joke is also used to prevent shame when embarrassed or have made shame or shame.
Adjust the situation
Organically and culturally the concept of Filipino time, they do things when they feel that it’s time to do it right. They are not bound by the schedule , and they are currently focused, not the future. The Filipinos are adapting to his situation, when there is time to breathe, to breathe, and when needed to work, he will work. They will not worry about things that are not happening yet, because they know that when the time comes, they will adapt. The Filipinos are quick to think and find solutions to problems even when they face it.
Stamina and strength
Philippine history is rich in failure and poverty , but Filipinos are still victorious in the face of them. Foreigners were seized, destroyed by war, subjected to martial law , governed by the calamity, destroyed by typhoons , and anything else, did not give up and not surrender the Filipinos, and strive to find solutions to the problem.
The nerve is one of the seven most important qualities that a Filipino. It refers to the ability of people to pursue instead of poverty, or death. It is a very important element in achieving dignity, and often, a person’s courage emanates when he wants to fight his dignity. However, it is not the only interests to think about when discussing the reasons why Filipinos show courage. In addition to the first one saying that a person’s courage is to protect his dignity, he may also fight for justice for his neighbor. Consequently, it can be said that courage is a feeling, or an inner feeling, which is important to achieve good for everyone.
Examples that show courage
Fought Lapu-Lapu with Ferdinand Magellan to protect its citizens from the forces of Spanish. Despite Lapu-Lapu’s disadvantage because Magellan’s weapons were better, he tried to persuade him to beat the Spaniards.
The rich and the poor in the EDSA Revolution have come together to depose former president Ferdinand Marcos . Even though they have no weapons and military as their counterparts, they are simultaneously going to EDSA to defend justice and their rights.
Jose Rizal wrote his Noli Me Tangere and El filibusterism books even though he knew that the Spaniards could kill him if they saw it. Because of Dr. Rizal, the Filipinos woke up with the oppression they had experienced under the Spaniards, and they began the revolution to gain independence .
Filipinos are industrious and patient in the work they are determined to end. This is what Filipinos will find in their farms . Even though the technology and equipment of the peasants are obsolete , and the farms are often destroyed because of the hurricanes they are still struggling to live. The Filipino concept of OFW or overseas Filipino worker is fascinated by the Philippine consciousness to help and support their families.
The Filipinos are very important to respect, and they are seen by their “po” and “opo” use. Children are expected to listen and always obey parents and older adults. They are also expected to refer to older adults. And even if a Filipino is old enough, they still respect the suggestions, wishes and wants of his parents, parents are still influencing their children’s decisions.
Source from Wikipedia