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Cornelis Drebbel

Cornelis Jacobsz Drebbel (Alkmaar, 1572 – London, November 7, 1633) Dutch builder of the first navigable submarine in 1620. Drebbel was an innovator who contributed to the development of measurement and control systems, optics and chemistry. He was active in many fields. From engraver he developed himself as a builder of all sorts of innovations, such as fountains and special effects on masquerade. Drebbel was a pioneer in measuring and Control technique During life, Drebbel was already known as builder of a so-called perpetuum mobile, the first microscope with two convex lenses and a submarine

Cornelis was born in Alkmaar, Verdronkenoord now no 141, probably in the year 1572, as a son of a good family. His father and mother were Jacob Jansz Dremmel and Hilgont Jans Boerman.

He visited the Latin school for a number of years, but did not pursue university education. As a young man, he went to teach the famous engraver Hendrick Goltzius in Haarlem in 1592, who together with the writer and painter Karel van Mander and Cornelis Cornelisz van Haarlem painter a Academy had Goltzius also engaged in alchemy and might be the one that Drebbel brought into contact. Drebbel married in 1595 with Feijtge-Sophia-Jansdochter, one of Goltzius’ younger sisters who lived in Alkmaar. Drebbel engraved a number of beautiful prints: The Seven Free arts and in 1597 a map of the city of Alkmaar In Alkmaar, Drebbel lived in the house where the Horn hangs, the corner of Doelenstraat-Koningsweg. He worked as an engraver and cartographer, and was also the inventor. In 1598 he received a patent on a pump and clock with A perpetual mobile, working on changes in air pressure and temperature He used to control the temperature in furnaces In Middelburg built He had a fountain in 1601 and a year later he got a patent on an improved chimney

At the end of 1604 he left with his family to England. They were living in Eltham Palace in Greenwich, where he demonstrated his perpetual mobile and clover balls that played on solar energy. They derived their effects on changes in temperature and air pressure and of course were not perpetua mobilia in the strict Physical sentence of the word Drebbels’ skills made great impression In that year he was appointed by Jacobus I (1566-1625) to the court

Drebbel was employed by crown prince Hendrik Frederik Stuart, Prince of Wales, as one of his teachers. He probably worked on the masquerade that were regularly raised and to which the king and his wife Anna participated. Drebbel would then have taken the special effects like fountains , Special lighting – thunderstorms and lightning and talking images coming out of the wall

In 1610, Drebbel left on invitation to Emperor Rudolf II in Prague. Meet Kepler, Spranger, Van Aachen, etc. He spent two years in Prague, construed perpetua mobile and mining pumps, but after dropping Rudolf by his brother Matthias, Drebbel , After a brief detention, with his family back to London in 1613

Back in England, Drebbel dedicated himself to the optics. He had to receive most of his earnings from Prague. Moreover, because of his pattern, Prince Henry (1594-1612) died after a short sick bed, around 1613 no income therefore wrote He hoping for a new pattern or sponsor, a letter to King Jacobus I In that letter he offered to make some interesting things like a strong telescope, an eternal clock, musical instruments and fountains working on solar energy This letter was passed Isaac Beeckman copied in his journal and is an important source of information In 1619 Drebbel was able to make composite microscopes. Drebbel showed the microscope at the Dutch ambassador to London, Willem Boreel

In England, Constantijn Huygens, father of Christiaan, was a frequent visitor to Drebbel Between 1618 and 1624, Huygens visited England a number of times, as a diploma in education from Drebbel he bought a camera obscura and a microscope. About the first meeting, Constantijn Huygens wrote:

From Drebbel I only got a glimpse, the scholar who looked like a Dutch farmer, but could speak as the wise men of Samos and Sicily together

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Partly because of these contacts, Constantijn Huygens had a strong interest in optics, an interest he transferred to his sons. His son Christiaan had a book of Drebbel in possession

Another relationship of Drebbel was Sir Francis Bacon Philosopher, statesman and thinker of a new way of learning, described in his novel Nova Organis and writer of the novel of Atlant Atlantis about a utopian society where “applied sciences” engender the lives of the inhabitants In that book, many of Drebbel’s construction systems, such as a solar energy system that can heat London can be used, an egg brewing machine, clean water supply, a ship for sailing and air conditioning

Drebbel can be compared to someone like Thomas Edison who, through experiments, made a great many inventions without formal scientific education.

Drebbel’s most famous construction is the submarine which he tested between 1620 and 1624. In his 1620 model, twelve men spent an hour or three under the water surface of the Thames, from the Tower in London to Greenwich. According to reports of contemporaries, Drebbel had an unknown ” Quintessens “In order to get oxygen into the submarine again, Drebbel may have generated oxygen by heating salpeter (potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate) in a metal pan, a process that releases oxygen. It would also have changed the nitrate in sodium or potassium oxide or hydroxide Dat Can explain why Drebbels men were not affected so much by the build-up of carbon dioxide as could be expected There are, however, no sources for this suspicion. Much of the relay around the submarine has been surrendered because it was circulated by his two son-in-law, the brothers Kuffler In Isaac Beeckman’s diary was mentioned in 1620 this first underwater ship

Drebbel designed and used, among other things, an automatic lens grinder. In 1622, Drebbels sold telescopes and microscopes throughout Europe through his two son-in-law sons, Kuffler’s brother. For example, Frenchman Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc (1580-1637), scientist and statesman, Relationship of Galileo Galilei, around 1622 the first observations with Drebbels microscope

In addition, Drebbel pursued the practical side of alchemy, distillation, sublimation and crystallization, contributing to the development of a new branch of science, chemistry. He developed an improved dye based on carmine or cochineal According to the Legendary morest Drebbel put a quantity of dye on a pewter window sill, and discovered that the color became much more fierce and lasting longer. He made a ververij in 1607, but his two daughters Anna and Catharina and the son-in-law Abraham and John Sibertus Sufferers who had great success in England with a ververij in Stratford-on-Bow from 1633 The recipe of the color Kufflerianus or Bow dye was carefully kept secret and the bright red color was used throughout Europe

Although in the history of science, Joseph Priestley is often referred to as the discovery of oxygen, it is more likely that Michael Sendivogius, 153, had already discovered Sendivogius that, when heated by salpeter, the “elixir of life” evolved, oxygen Cornelius Drebbel might have this idea Picked up and applied to allow his submarine to sail underwater for a long time

Drebbel gained great assignments from the Duke of Buckingham in 1625 – 1627. He built a torpedo launcher in Ship No. 3 of the Duke, who at his own expense had built ten warships by the Royal Navy. He made firewaters water mines and explosives for the expedition The French Siege of La Rochelle Had To Break (1625-28) In the last years of his life, Drebbel was still involved in a drying industry around Cambridge and the design of a theater in London. The family also operated a beer house on the Thames On September 7, 1633, died Drebbel