Commercial aviation

Commercial aviation (also: Business air travel) is the part of civil aviation (both general aviation and scheduled airline services) that involves operating aircraft for hire to transport passengers or multiple loads of cargo.

In contrast to scheduled air traffic , business aviation predominates primarily through individual transport. It makes it possible to travel flexibly and quickly. This results in less downtime due to waiting times at airports for travelers.

In terms of aviation , business aviation is covered by General Aviation, as it would be difficult to decide in individual cases whether the flight concerned is of a commercial or other nature. In addition, there are some different rules and regulations for factory traffic and other commercial business aviation. These include, but are not limited to, different taxation of fuel, prescribed minimum runway lengths, and minimum pilot qualifications.

In modern business aviation, the trend is increasing from individual charter flight or proprietary jet to cost-cutting variants such as leasing and fractional ownership (ownership of an aircraft without assuming responsibility for flight operations).

In Europe, business jets can land at approximately 2,000 airfields, as they can mostly use shorter runs, while liner companies can only fly to around 200 destinations.

Well-known companies are in Europe z. B. PrivatAir and Jet Aviation (charter) NetJets (fractional ownership), SFD – Stuttgarter Flugdienst and DC Aviation .

In contrast to scheduled flight flights, commercial aviation is primarily privately transported by individuals. It gives passengers a fast and flexible ride. Therefore, commercial aviation requires less downtime maintenance procedures at the airport to reduce passenger waiting time.

The definition of commercial aviation depends on whether its aircraft is for commercial purposes, not the type of pilot or aircraft. In aviation law, both commercial aviation and private aviation are included in the general aviation category because it is difficult to judge whether the flight is for commercial or other purposes in individual cases. In addition, there are some different rules and regulations for intra-enterprise or commercial flights. These rules include a definition of the fuel tax that commercial aviation is required to pay different from other flight categories, the length of the runway and the requirements for pilot qualification. E.g:

The pilot must hold a valid commercial aviation flight qualification.
The aircraft must have a valid commercial aviation registration certificate.
The operator must obtain a commercial aviation certificate authorized by the relevant authority.
In general, commercial aviation registration certification standards will be higher than private aviation requirements. For example, commercial aviation pilots must frequently perform simulated flights to maintain high standards and may require more frequent physical examinations; aircraft may also require more frequent and extensive maintenance.

Customers using commercial aviation are now on the rise. In order to save costs, some companies usually use the method of renting or purchasing partial ownership when flying on charter flights or for internal transportation. In Europe, commercial aviation can provide a wide range of services, due to its small requirements for aircraft take-off and landing sites, there are about 2,000 standards-compliant landing and landing sites in Europe, and there are only about 200 airports available for scheduled flights.


The Air Commerce Act of 1926 began to regularize commercial aviation by establishing standards, facilitation, and promotion. An Aeronautical Branch was established in the Department of Commerce with William P. MacCracken, Jr. as director. To promote commercial aviation, he told town fathers that “Communities without airports would be communities without airmail.”

Writing for Collier’s in 1929, he noted “Commercial aviation is the first industry inspired by hero-worship and built upon heros”. He cited the promotion in South America by Herbert Dargue in early 1927. After his trans-Atlantic flight, Charles Lindbergh made a tour of the 48 States paid for by the Guggenheim Foundation for the Promotion of Aeronautics. From that point commercial aviation took off:

Roads were chocked on Sundays for weeks afterward, by motorists trying to get to Lambert Field, Lindbergh’s home port in Saint Louis, to buy their first air hop. Hundreds of thousands of you went aloft for the first time that summer.”
The Aeronautical Branch was charged with issuing commercial pilot licenses, airworthiness certificates, and with investigating air accidents.

Post-war aviation
After World War II, commercial aviation grew rapidly, using mostly ex-military aircraft to transport people and cargo. This growth was accelerated by the glut of heavy and super-heavy bomber airframes like the B-29 and Avro Lancaster that could be converted into commercial aircraft. The DC-3 also made for easier and longer commercial flights. The first commercial jet airliner to fly was the British de Havilland Comet. By 1952, the British state airline BOAC had introduced the Comet into scheduled service. While a technical achievement, the plane suffered a series of highly public failures, as the shape of the windows led to cracks due to metal fatigue. The fatigue was caused by cycles of pressurization and depressurization of the cabin, and eventually led to catastrophic failure of the plane’s fuselage. By the time the problems were overcome, other jet airliner designs had already taken to the skies.

The birth of jet aviation
As you can find out the use of jet engines managed to revolutionize air transport completely, these new aircraft allowed to fly at a higher speed (reduction of flight times) and use higher flight altitudes (this meant avoiding atmospheric inclemencies), reducing Logically possible incidents that could delay flights and decrease the time between trips from Tokyo to London that went from 85 hours to 36.

In the first moments of flight of this type of aircraft some resistance was generated towards the development of this propulsion system in commercial aircraft, since the use of high temperatures in its engines, the high rate of consumption was suspected to have a life Effective, much smaller than turbodiesels, and this despite their undoubtedly advantageous benefits. This skepticism meant that companies had to dedicate an effort to establish new maintenance measures for the much stricter planes and to hire more qualified personnel, in addition to having to build more sophisticated facilities to carry out this work. The introduction of the jet engine was a great effort and had to change many concepts in the air transport business.

The existence of the first jet-capable aircraft meant that commercial airlines began to use these types of engines in their aircraft, the first to do so was the British Overseas Aircraft Company (BOAC), which in 1952 was able to fly with the Comet from London to Johannesburg , making stops in the city of Rome , Beirut , etc. In those first years, while the DC3 was flying at 290km / h, the De Havilland Comet reached 772km / h, using a low level of noise and very little vibration.

Business aviation is exposed to strong cyclical fluctuations in the market economy, in summer the number of flights is significantly higher than in winter. Not only large corporations use business jets, but also smaller and medium-sized companies. The three countries with the highest flight movements in business aviation are Germany, the United Kingdom and France in this order.

Source from Wikipedia