Classical architecture in Hungary

Classical architecture began to unfold in Hungary a little later than the classicism in the western part of Europe. This style was dominated in the architecture of the Kingdom of Hungary from the beginning of the 19th century until the 1850s.

The outstanding figures of Hungarian classical architecture are József Hild and Mihály Pollack ; the most important work of the Hungarian National Museum. The ecclesiastical basilica of Eger, the church of Eger and the Reformed large church in Debrecen are outstanding memories of church architecture. There are still many memories of construction sites in the Middle Ages and Urban Citizenship, which are growing at the time of the reform : county and town halls, other public buildings, residential houses, mansions, villas and castles. The nice examples of Hungarian classicist castles embraced by landscaped gardens are the old Festetics mansion, the Cziráky castle in Lovasberény, and the Esterházy Castle in Csákvár.

Several of the buildings of the age, such as the Pesti Vigadó, the German Theater of Pest, or the Nádor Castle of the Alcsútdobozi, have been destroyed.

Characteristics of Hungarian Classicist Architecture
The memories of Hungarian classicism are difficult to measure with memories of age in England, France, Germany or Russia. Due to economic opportunities and the shortages of the principals, usually smaller scale construction works were carried out. It was also common practice that the traditional tastes of the principals were progressing towards a more progressive plan (for example, in the Debrecen big church). Classicism is therefore not a symbol of representativeness in Hungary, but a symbol of practicality and practicality.

The classicist buildings in Hungary are usually composed of few simple geometric elements, such as the column, the cube, the cylinder, the half cylinder, and the hemispheres. The cube of the building is not disturbed by the low-angle roof, sometimes hidden behind the high attic. The facades are the united, non-sidelined images, the relaxed, horizontal division with the typical ablaksor and repeating motifs. Representativity is expressed by the highlighted middle ridge, mostly with a parapet-shaped, columnar, triangular oromate or balconies.

The characteristic feature of the era is the romantic view of nostalgia for the culture and architecture of the Middle Ages, which is most strongly attributed to garden and landscape architecture. Increasingly, however, neo- gothic neo-gothic elements were used on larger scale buildings (for example, the reconstruction of the Pollack Mihály Palace in Pécs between 1805 and 1812 or the parish church of Pétervására); this can be considered as the forerunner of romantic style and history.

As in the case of Baroque, the church and churches, palaces and castles built by the nobility continued to dominate by the decree of the nobility; their growing economic weight was indicated by urban dwellings and villas. As a result of these and the growing number of public buildings, primarily county and town houses, cultural public buildings (theaters, playhouses, casinos), baths and farm buildings, the style of classicism reached the architecture of the lowest social strata and appeared on the facades of rural farmhouses too.

There are few nationally renowned architects in the age of classicism; the evaluation of posterity is clearly based on Mihály Pollack and József Hild. Several historians like Ferenc Povolny from Eger, János Packh of Esztergom, László Ugrai, Transylvanian László, or the Hild family of Sopron in Late Baroque style in Esztergom, basically worked in a specific region and rarely moved out of there. The overwhelming majority of construction projects are anonymous local builders, builders, or perhaps uneducated citizens. As with the Baroque period, noble families continue to be characterized by the employment of foreign, mainly Viennese architects; For example, the orders of the Esterhazy, for example, Charles Moreau of France, Charles the Heinrich Koch and Anton Pius Riegl raised important buildings.

While in the field of fine arts or music, in the first half of the nineteenth century, the search for national features had already come to an end in Hungary, this process was very subtle in architecture. His first signs were typically within the neo-classical style of the German columnist, a German-educated Bratislava art teacher, Johann Shcauff’s national column order from 1790, which offered a Hungarian style beside the classical Dorian, Jonian and Corinthian columns.

City Planning, Urbanism
The First Conscious Urban Planning Plan II. During the reign of Joseph, he was built in Pest, near the New Building. The shape of the rectangular blocks at that time and the shape of the Erzsébet square still define the integration of the area. The next comprehensive work was commissioned by József Nádor, most of whom are important to emphasize the name of Hild János. The plan extends to the lines of the city and touches the downtown, the “New Town” (today’s Lipótváros) and the suburbs (Teréz, József and Ferencváros). Important elements are the right-angled street network, woodland and flood protection in the unbuilt areas. In 1808 the Szépítő Bizottság was formed on the initiative of József Nádor, who until 1857 replied to Pest’s urban development and the implementation of Hild’s settlement plan. On the Pest side of the Danube, in the following decades, a unique, classicist row of houses was built in Hungary, with its dominant buildings such as the Nábo Palace, the Lloyd Palace and the Pest Vigadó. The first permanent Danube Bridge, the Chain Bridge, was built in the 1840s as a fundamental element of the city’s structure.

Just as in the past, natural disasters, especially fires and floods, are important starting points for urban-scale interventions. After the 1838 flood in Pest, the “Ordinary Building Order” was prepared, which required the building material, facade design and height, but did not regulate the density of the building.

World Architecture
A classy and high-quality group of neo-Classical architecture is the county-style built in this style, which primarily indicated the strengthening of the political role of the districts. These are mostly self-contained, two-storey, simply split-facade buildings whose main entrance is highlighted by a four or six-pole portico. Two extreme examples of its white-lined walls, with its simple porch-porch porch, the rural county of Macho, the rural noble mansions, and the corinthian columned central sculpture of the facade, despite the narrow space, is a generous palace-like Pest county. The archduke of Oktober, built around 1830, extends out of the line, which reflects the effect of contemporary German and Italian architecture with its chiselled façade. Similarly, the town hall of Cluj was built according to the plans of Antal Kagerbauer, which was made in the style of Leo von Klenze’s Royal Palace of Munich and the Italian Renaissance palaces. Town halls were built in a smaller number but also for representative purposes in the era, such as Jászberény (1838-39), Debrecen (Ferenc Povolny, 1842), Pécs (József Piatsek, 1831-32, broken down) and Pancsova (1833). One of the examples of village houses is the Pásztó and the Pápok.

Theaters and public buildings
Since the second half of the 18th century, the general type of stone theater has evolved, followed by the majority of Hungarian examples. The public on the horse or on foot could enter the foyer from the covered, open-porch porch, from where it moved further down the stairs or downstairs to the upstairs lobbies. Downhills of the horseshoe auditorium were complemented by lodges.

The first permanent stone theater of the country was built in 1821 by Farkas Street, in Cluj – Napoca. The simple, classicist baroque façade building served the company until 1906. In 1823 the stone theater opened in Miskolc, but it burned in twenty years. It was then built between 1847-57 in the current classicist style, according to József Cassano’s plans, with an elegant palace-like facade, featuring a three-axis centered finish. The “old” theater in Sopron was built by Ferenc Löszl in 1835. The main façade of 1-3-1 axes was decorated by a four-column balcony and timpanon, with a statue group above it. Also in the 1830’s was the Pécs Theater, also based on plans by József Piacsek, a local architect. A significant playground for the reform era was operating in Balatonfüred ; in 1831 it is likely that József Fülöp plans to erect a theater building today only six columns. In Tatabánya, in 1831, in Lőcs, between 1840-53, the theater was built. In Veszprém, built in 1819 in Késmár, a casino expanded in Eger in 1822, and later expanded in 1837, welcomes such events. From the ground floor, it is a special theater in Szabadka, erected in the 1840s on corner walls, where the planner placed the columned entrance porch instead of the more representative side facades.

In Pest the first building of the German Theater was completed, according to plans by Johann Aman and Pollack Mihály. The building with a view of 3300 spectators was on the west side of the Gizella (now Vörösmarty) square. The main facade of 3 + 2 + 3 + 2 + 3 axes was decorated with a lower three-axis arcade portalic lower than the ledge height, and the semi-circular theater hall from the lobby was accessible. It was built on the west side of the plot, overlooking the Danube, based on the plans of Aman and Pollack, known as Redoute (Pest Vigadó). Its representative three-story, 3 + 5 + 3-axis main facade was decorated with a monumental portico. At the top of the five storeys, at the top of the first floor, six good columns held the statue of timpanon. The building, which was completed in the 1830’s, brought a great success to Pollack. The German Theater was burned down in 1847 and Vigadó was destroyed in 1849 by Hentzi’s bombs.

The German Theater was followed by the Hungarian Theater of Pest, for which several architects made plans, but finally 1835 and the appointment of Mátyás Zitterbarth’s younger brother brought only success. To the corners outside the Hatvani gate, Zitterbarth has a closed-bulb building with a 3-4-3-sided side facade and scaffoldings, plaster strips, Corinthian lizens and relief facade decorated with relief ribbons. There was a latticed balcony with five arches in front of the main entrance, with a high door with a semicircular closure. The entrances into the columned halls, with symmetrical two-sided stairs leading to the upper floor. From here, the horseshoe-shaped auditorium was open.

The Hungarian National Museum
At the 1832-36 parliament, it was decided that the Hungarian National Museum, founded in 1802 with the offering of Ferenc Széchényi, will receive a separate building. With the design, Mihály Pollack was entrusted with a number of plans, in addition to the patronage of József’s patron and the experts of his Pietro Nobile. As a type of building, the museum was rare in Europe at this time; The construction of the British Museum in London in 1821, the construction of the Altes Museum in Berlin, which was undoubtedly influenced by the plague, started in 1830.

The National Museum of Pest, which was the most significant piece of Hungarian classicism and the main work of Mihály Pollack, was built between 1837 and 1847. Closed, united mass has two inner courtyards. Its main façade is surrounded by two centimeters of prominent middle rim and the eight Corinthian columns attached to it, decorated by a timpanos portico, with a wide staircase between walls. Shorter façades are divided by a less pronounced, middle axis with a ½ axis; at the corners, pilasters lock the false planes. Its inner representative square starts with the rectangular lobby, from which a circle-shaped room can be reached to the stage staircase. This leads to the high-rise, high-ceilinged circular hall, from where the room is open, and the series of enfirmed showrooms on both sides.

Schools, libraries
From the beginning of the 19th century, a number of educational buildings have been used all over the country today. For example, the Pest military academy, Ludovika, Mihály Péchy, was built on the plans of Mihály Pollack, the Reformed College of Debrecen, the Reformed College of Sárospatak or the Reformed College of Kecskemét Reformation. The construction of the monastery library in Pannonhalma was started on the basis of József Engel’s plans, and János Packh took over the works. The cross-planed, richly decorated library is one of the most beautiful Hungarian memories of the era of interior design. From the three definitive public buildings of Pécs, József Piacsek, the town hall and theater have been demolished today, but the university library, which was raised in 1830, was fortunate. On the façade of a pleasant section of a horizontal section, the architect, probably because of the narrow street, lowered the Tuscan columns leading to the main entrance porch in the plane of the wall.

Transylvanian Classicism is a subtle, but beautiful memory of Teleki Téka in Târgu-Mureş. Several architects made a plan for the architect Teleki Sámuel’s request, the most interesting being the central idea of Ugrai László’s name. On the little facade of the building, the two-storey, three-star, carved library room is more remarkable.

Other public buildings
Numerous smaller and larger public buildings remained from the age of classicism. Among the new types of buildings that appear are a representative group of hotels (Erzsébet Hotel, Paks), taverns, casinos, vigados, civilian shooters. In Trnava and Zsolna at that time the city hospitals were built in Eger, Erdőbénye, Szilágyfürdő, Sculpture, Parád and Smrdakő bathhouses.From this period comes from Piestany spa settlements, as well as built according to the plans of József Hild Buda Emperor bath and (z later demolished) Pest Diana bathing.

Among the most important monuments of military architecture are the Nádor barracks in Buda (1844-47), the barricade of Üllői út in Pest (József Hild, 1835-1848), and the modernization of the Gellért Hill 1815 It was built in the 1850’s by the Citadel.

Residential buildings

Citizens’ houses and city palaces
In the Classicist era, the two- and three-storey residential houses became a fast-paced Pest in metropolitan Hungary. Pollack’s major works include the Mojave House of Kováts, the House of Horváth, the Wurm House and its own house at the Nádor Street 7. under. József Hild has many large-scale town dwellings connected; for example, he designed the area around Széchenyi square today with the Ullmann and Wieser houses, the Tänzer house and the Nákó palota.

The harmonious façade of small town palaces and fine detail solutions highlight the two-storey Almássy palace built on Pest Street. This and the much larger three-storey Festetics Palace in Pest was designed by Pollack.

The most famous city palace of the time is the Sándor Palace in Buda, built between 1803 and 1806. By designing Johann Aman, Pollack can be contacted with the design, although the resources are incomplete. Yes, close to the Sándor Palace a few years later, erected between 1806-1810 impressive Székesfehérvár Schmidegg Palace or Zichy-house (today’s Hungary Kiraly hotel), the main front wing of the builder family residence, yard wings of cafes and hotel from place. Also, the architect Charles Heinrich Koch plans to build the Károlyi Palace in Pest (now Petőfi Literary Museum), which used to be used as a building.

While the cityscape of Pest was mostly characterized by homogeneous moods and within classicalism, the townhouses were the same in the same direction as rural houses. The Csáky-Dessewffy palace in Kassa, with double columns, kept its balcony on its balcony and its details on the facade of the classicist Baroque; however, the Forgách Palace clearly shows the influence of its age-old Italian architecture; Palladio’s motif of the middle-class is a rare element in Hungarian classicism. Compared to the classicist, yet representative façade of the Jósika palace in Cluj, the Rhédey palace is more like the design and scale of town houses.

Mansions, villas
At the beginning of the 18th century the villas were spreading in green areas near the towns. This process is clearly linked to citizenship, as the nobles mostly maintained separate rural and urban residences. One of the few exceptions is probably the Festetics Villa, which is probably the name of Pollack Mihály, in the Pest Garden in Pest. The beautiful example of the villas built in the Buda Hills is still a good example of the so-called. Clock Tower, XII. Diana Street 17 and XII. Forks below Budakeszi út 38. The latter was built by József Hild’s own house in 1844 with a Corinthian polished porticoed portico (today’s picture with the cornercritics of the 1889 enlargement).

Mostly on the ground floor, like the peasant houses, the garrulous, longitudinal layout of nuns’ mansions depict a lot in the details of the castles of the noblemen. Some outstanding examples:

Rural castles
Classicist castles were built mostly in a flat area, with the focus of carefully planned landscape gardens. Their mass is a balanced, simple geometric body, with a closed-roofed, closed-door roof. A new portico, a portico from the antique architecture, stood in front of the middle-class, 4-6-column, timpanon-enclosed hall, most of which served as a carriage drive. Compared to Baroque, the horizontal sectional facades are much less detailed, the side margins are less significant, and sometimes disappear. The facade facing the garden is less solemn and lighter, while the portico’s role is often overwhelmingly overlooked by false planes.

The interior is important and the façade is characterized by the fact that the representative spaces are placed in the vicinity of the garden, on the ground floor, thus becoming larger ceilings. The floor plan is symmetrical; the entrance hall opening behind the central window leads to a representative square of the one axle and to the simple staircase. The room is mostly behind the central door, rarely in the side door. The oval or polygonal-shaped rooms have almost disappeared; Circus floor plans (inspired by the Pantheon of Rome) occur.

Sacred Architecture
Classicalism in Hungarian ecclesiastical architecture is less significant than the Baroque, but left behind decisive memories. The classicist late Baroque church architecture is a significant memory of the Tatai and Papal parish churches designed by Jakab Fellner (1751-1785 and 1774-1786) and the cathedral of Szombathely (Melchior Hefele, 1791-1814). It was built by Isidore Canevale in Vác cathedralit is still possible to discover late Baroque forms, such as the double columns of the portico, in mass management, while on Puritan façades the effect of French classicist architecture is clearly felt. Similarly unparalleled, but outstandingly high quality memorial was the church of Glorification of the Holy Cross (1813-1818) built by Charles Moreau, which was built for the Mausoleum of the Esterházy family.

Among the transformations, the new facade of the cathedral of Győr (1823), as well as the basilica of Pannonhalma, stand out. Here, János Packh’s new lobby and tower were built for the medieval church from 1829-32. The top of the tower is square-planed, with circular tops, with a colonnad on top of a colonnade, recalling Bramante’s Roman Templot (Packh liked the Esztergom Basilica).

Among the parish churches in the countryside, you can also find some interesting and interesting examples. The four-column facade of Lovasberény’s church, with two squatting towers rising beside the sanctuary, reflects the mass composition of the Eger cathedral. The parish church without the tower, puritanically, with its massive weight, is probably the work of Ágost Heine János, as is the tiny but carefully formed building of the local Mausoleum of Salvation. A beautiful example of late classicist architecture Jolsva was built in 1849 as a parish church. On the main front of the facade, the entrance gate and the large, semicircular window that opened over it were held by paired columns, which were surrounded by triangular bristle-sized central resin. This is covered by two gloomy, low-roofed roofs.

The Pétervására St. Martin’s parish church (1812-1817) on the basis of Eger Ferenc Povolni keglevich built by Charles deceased daughter, Anna Louise in memory. He studied at the Vienna Academy and learned about his Gothic and Gothic architecture during his Czech and Moravian journeys. The church with two nautical gothic architecture, with its beautiful naiveté, can be considered as the first memory of Hungarian romantic architecture.

The Cathedral of Esztergom
The Cathedral of Esztergom is a remarkable memory of Hungarian classicist architecture not only because of its size but also its artistic value. The medieval archbishopric of Esztergom did not have much left of St. Adalbert’s Cathedral, and in 1820 Sándor Rudnay decided that Esztergom would become its seat again. Mandate Kühnel Paul made plans to build a large-scale Castle Hill. Of this, partly due to the interference of the jealous courtyard of Vienna, only the cathedral, canonosis, the archbishop’s palace and the seminary finally came to fruition. After Küh’s death in 1824, János Packh, who had been building the building, took over the planning. His name is associated with the Renaissance Bakócz chapelrelocating and incorporating the new church. Rudnay’s death in 1831 was preceded by Egyptian-style crypts and a part of the side walls. Following the murder of Packh in 1839, József Kopácsy, archbishop of Eger, József Pyrker, József Hild, entrusted József Hild with further work. Due to the scarcity of materialism, the original plans had to be changed: the size and facade of the cathedral were simplified and left the connecting wing. Following the 1848-49 War of Independence, Archbishop János Scitovszky further built the church, which was consecrated on August 31, 1856 by Esztergom’s Francis Liszt. The finishing works were appointed after the death of Scitovszky in 1866They belong to János Simor’s name.

The Eger Cathedral
In the place of the baroque cathedral raised by Giovanni Battista Carlone, Károly Eszterházy first made plans for the new plans with József Grossman in Tata. In 1827 János Pyrker became Archbishop of Eger, who had already proven Jan Packh in Esztergom to make new plans but was dissatisfied with the final result, and finally the task was given to József Hild. Between 1831-37, the church was built according to his plans. The mass of the long-standing building is complex and the intricate interior space is also visible on the outside, showing the influence of Andrea Palladio’s Venetian Redentore church. The cruiser is the same height as the main ship; the two towers stand next to the sanctuary; the entrance is highlighted by a 17 meter high columned porch. The basilica of Eger is unique in the Hungarian classicist architecture: it is the largest building, from the design to the completion of the work of a single master. Hild had the same significance as the parish church of St. Stephen in Pest, but because of static problems, he was rebuilt after the death of the original designer, in a neo-Renaissance style.

Orthodox and Protestant Churches
As a result of the Grace Regulation, Protestant churches are becoming more and more pronounced in the cityscape. Compared with Baroque, the puritanical, rational classical style proved particularly suitable for the architectural presentation of the idea of Protestantism. Protestant prayer houses of the two evangelical churches of the Deák Square and the Debrecen Reformed Great Church are two prominent protests of the era.

The plan of the Deák Square evangelical church made by János Krausz from 1799 Mihály Pollack revised to the extent that the outcome should be basically his work. However, the column-shaped lobby was not designed, and today’s protracted wall-mounted portico was built in 1856 as a work by József Hild. The polar tomb built by Pollack was demolished in 1875, because it proved to be too difficult.

The Reformed Grand Church in Debrecen was built after the fire destroyed in 1802, in the place of the medieval Saint Andrew Church. Mihály Péchy’s original temple plan with its two towers and a tambourine dome reflects the influence of the St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, but failed in the resistance of the Debrecen people. From the realized building, the designer has distanced himself several times, but today we regard him as his work. The church is Greek, with planed, stretched and square sections with two sides polygonal spaces. The lower, two-storey, palace-like part of the main facade is divided into junior, giant semi-columns. The tympanum above the main rooftop is highlighted by a chest wall linking the two towers. The two tall tower with its characteristic stretched horizontal facade will have a great impact on the architecture of the eastern half of the country.The example in Debrecen is followed bySatu Mare Cathedral (1830-1837, József Hild), the latter significantly rebuilt ceglédi Reformed Church (József Hild, 1835-1871), and the Cluj lower town Reformed Church (1829-1851, Georg Winkler and Kagerbauer Anthony).

The main work of József Hofrichter, the Calvinist church of Calvinist Square in Budapest, was built for a minor effect, but also for representative purpose (the temple was attributed to Stephen Bibo by Hild Vince, and the porter in front of the building was later built by József Hild). Above the unclassified white facades, the balusters main girdle stretches, and the more serious decoration appears only on the tower. The three-vaulted interior has a subtle decoration, a feature of the two-story gallery system.

In the field of synagogue, the transition between the late Baroque and Classicism is almost unnoticeable. In a number of cases, the shape of both styles is displayed on a building, such as the Csongrád synagogue rebuilt in 1854, where there was a six-columned, timpanous portico under the Baroque slingshot (broken down after 1944). From 1817 to 1821, a work of András Landherr, architect of the classical form of the Baroque building, the Óbuda Synagoguetoo. The most representative parts of the building are the southern facade with more detail than the other side facades as well as the main entrance to the west. There were six corinthian columns in front of the gate, a hallway covered with plastered timpanes, and a red marble statue. In the wake of Óbuda, several Hungarian synagogues were built, and the work of András Landherr was made by Abony (1825), decorated with a four-posted portico, attributed to the hunfalva of 1821. The series of more representative memories is enriched by the castle palace (1835-40) and later partly rebuilt by Liptovsky Miklós(1846) synagogue. According to Rudolf Klein, a significant part of the Hungarian classicist synagogues is adapted to the characteristics of Protestant church architecture. In the Synagogue of Baja (1842-45), designed by Lajos Frey, the mass and facade formations of the Lutheran church of Ferlack Square in Deák Ferdinate are discovered. They fall into this type of simple shaped Apostag (1822) and Nagykanizsa (1807-21) also synagogues. A special memory is the 1881 Kiskunhalas Synagogue, where the neoclassical masses contribute to gothic details (top-notch window shapes), pointing to the influence of romantic architecture.

Industrial and agricultural architecture, infrastructure
The largest buildings of the time included the Valero silk factory in Pest, which was built by József Hild at the beginning of the 1840s. The two-story buildings with a square square layout are not the same, the number of openings is the same. The main facade is dominated by a small middle-sized hall, giving it a palatine-like look to the building with a good half-pole. In the second quarter of the 1800s, more and more large-scale factories were built on the territory of Hungary, such as the Óbuda yard or the Ganz factory, but the building from that time remained very few.

The most significant, symbolic transport structure of the Reform Age, according to plans by William Tierney Clark, an English engineer, was built between 1840 and 1849 under the leadership of Scottish Clark Ádám, Chain Bridge connecting Pest and Buda. At the time of its construction, it was one of the world’s most up-to-date and most stiffened hangar bridge. The built-up elements of the bridge are representative, sculpturally demanding, and the triangular-shaped pillars also enhance the elegance of the building. (Except for the decomposed customs houses, the bridge still holds a roughly original image.) According to plans by Ádám Clark, the tunnel of the Chain Bridge is one of the most important buildings of the age of Classicism, which was completed between 1853-65.

The nine-hole bridge in Hortobágy was built between 1827 and 1933, according to the plans of Ferenc Povolny, at the expense of the city of Debrecen; with its 167.3 meters being the longest stone bridge in Hungary.

The first half of the 19th century is related to the spread of the railway in Hungary; this process involved many pioneering engineering and architectural achievements. The Pesti Husky, designed by Mátyás Young, and later 1846, belonged to the largest railway stations in Hungary, for decades.

Various stables, barns, stables and marshes, as well as mills, continue to play an important part in agricultural buildings.

Landscape and Landscape Architecture
Public parks
The 19th century brought the first endeavors to shape the landscape architecture of the Hungarian cities. Baron Pesten László Orczy formed the first public park in his own estate. The works were commissioned by renowned German landscape architect Bernhard Petri in the last years of the 18th century. We know that in the dry summer of 1794, 30000 planted trees and shrubs have been destroyed, but in the following years the plant and landscape architecture of the area known as Orczy Garden, with pond and picturesque plant groups, was established. In the neighboring area of the Orczy Garden, the Festetics have created a demanding park to visit the public. In 1829, the first one was purchased for the Ludovika Academy, which from 1847 served the purposes of the University Garden Garden.

In the 19th century urban public parks, Budapest’s Városliget is one of the earliest. Heinrich Nebbien, who was established in Pest in Lübeck, worked for three years, and in 1816 he was commissioned by the Graduate Committeea competition. The specialty of the task was that the area was designed from the beginning as a populace, by not transforming an existing main garden. Nebbien has designed a number of demanding details for the English-style park. At the entrance to the park he imagined a neo-classicist colonnade of columns and a majesty for the Nador Island. He removed the previously planned straight stairs, but kept the roundabout, the Rondo (at the mouth of today’s Városliget façade), where the main entrance would have opened. The tallest building was the outdoor stage, the Amphitheater, with 1,500 seats and 2,500 seats. However, his plans were only partially implemented due to lack of funds, mainly planting. The result of his work remained largely until the end of the century when a significant part of the trees of the park were cut off in the 1885 National Exhibition,for settling celebrations of millenniums.

In the southern part of today’s Freedom Square, in 1846, István Széchenyi and his wife planted the first boulevard, making it the base of a popular promenade of the city (today the Virulj!

Private gardens, castle parks
Most demanding and original form of the first half of the 19th century is still largely preserved landscape garden of Eisenstadt Esterházy Palace developed around a Charles Moreau, the French architect who continued to work part Matthias Polti Prince’s head gardener. Moreau, on the basis of earlier plans, worked on a larger area, alternating with free areas and wooded parks, forming winding walking paths. Two new buildings in the garden include a machine room, which houses the English steam engine, and a columned round church where Antonio Canova Leopoldina statue was placed.

Heinrich Nebbien, who is laying the foundations of City Park, has worked for noble families. The Brunswick family ordered the DOLNÁ KRUPÁ and Martonvasar castles developed garden; most of the latter can be seen today. Nebbia is likely to Betliar Andrássy-, as well as the homeland of St. Anthony and the upper Blh company could Koháry role in the development of parks castles. The name of Bernhard Petri, the building of the Orczy Garden in Pest, is in the hands of the Vedród and Hédervárbuilding parks of castles. In the form of a watchtower, a shrine was built, in the form of an “old Gothic castle”, using the main facade loggia of a 15th-century Venetian palace. A similar building was erected at the end of the 19th century at Tatra, the park of Esterházy Castle ; here the stones of the Romanesque abbey of the Vértesszentrum and Roman tombstones were also used.

Many of the areas currently used as public parks have laid the foundations of this age. This is the only waterway accessible to Margit Island at this time, whose architectural design was begun by Archduke Leopold Alexander, then by the commander of József, with the involvement of Karl Tost, a royal masterpiece (the 1838 ice-flood caused serious damage). József Nádor’s other serious landscape design investment is considered to be the creation of the landscape garden of the Habsburg Castle of Alsbären, which still represents a significant part of his original picture with some original buildings. From the first half of the 19th century, numerous landscape gardens remained in Hungary, linked to noble castles, more or less original.

Source from Wikipedia