Boshan colored glaze Museum, Shandong, China

The Boshan colored glaze Museum was built in September 2007, located at No. 17 South of Xiye Street, Boshan District, covering an area of ​​over 3,000 square meters. It is equipped with sound, lighting and power systems, as well as projectors and VCD television broadcasting equipment, which can play high-definition audio-visual materials for production plans of colored glaze products at any time. In the museum, there are exhibition areas of ancient glaze, modern glaze, contemporary glaze and Boshan inner painting. There are 1,505 pieces of various cultural relics, including ancient glazes, glaze crafts, art glazes and so on. In addition, modern glaze art is also used to build life-like “underwater worlds” and vivid “animals”. “Kingdom”, which contains many rare birds and animals made of glaze.

Boshan colored glaze
“Pearl agate, Amber colored glaze Street.” The glory of colored glaze is evident. The earliest discovery of glazed products in China dates back to the Western Zhou Dynasty. The Tang Dynasty was particularly developed. The Song Dynasty was called “medicine jade”, the Ming Dynasty was called “nitrate jade”, and the Qing Dynasty was called “feeder”.

Regarding the origin of colored glaze, it was first discovered by the alchemists. The ancient alchemists put various stones into the Dan furnace, and dreamed that they could make immortal immortal. One person named Lushen found irregular luminous objects in the Dan furnace furnace. Crystal is translucent and some are colorful, so Lu Shen dedicated it to the monarch. The deceitful monarch said that this is an elixir. One can avoid evil and be immortal when placed in the room. At that time, the monarch first saw such a glittering luminous body and believed it as true. And designated to pay tribute to the monarch in the future.

The glazed carving process was called “nested material” in the Qing Dynasty. Because people in Beijing call the glazed glass, which is the colored glass crafts of Boshan, called “feeder”, the bottles, bowls and pots made of two or more glazed color materials are called “nested material”. The “nesting material” must be polished, carved with various exquisite patterns, and finally polished to become a craft. The unrefined nesting bottles and bowls are just a blank, and have no use value or ornamental value. The first “nest” was a snuff bottle.

The description of “nested materials” in “Yonglu Xianyu” written by Zhao Zhiqian of the Da Jinshi family in the Qing Dynasty is earlier and more informative: “The snuff bottle was originally made in the shape of an ancient medicine bottle. .The pots are made of five-colored glass … the more innovative term is called “set”. The “set” is also white set. The quality of the pot is said to be “ground” … the color of the set is red, blue, and Green, black, white … and more complex, said two mining, three mining, four mining, five mining, or overlapping sets, the carvings are exquisite. Made by Kangxi, simple and simple, beautiful photos are rotten.

Since Qianlong, the craftsman has carved, far more than Zhan Cheng, the moment of chiseling, as detailed as the slightest, the sound of the sound. Dragons and Phoenixes pan, fish and geese flowers, mountains and rivers, Yiding, thousands of species, the origin is clear. “From here we It can be seen that the glazed carvings originated from the Kangxi reign of the Qing dynasty, and developed to a very high level during the Qianlong reign.

Therefore, today’s international cultural relics market and the collection world regard the “wrapping materials” during the Qing Emperor Qianlong as treasures of invaluable value, while the Japanese cultural relics world simply refers to all ancient and modern glass carving crafts as “Qianlong materials”. In addition to nest snuff bottles, from the collections of the Palace Museum and the world’s major museums, we can also see a large number of crafts such as bottles, bowls, lids, and dregs carved from the glass of the Qing Emperor Yongzheng and Qianlong.

According to the archives of the Qing Palace Office, there is a group of “millers” in the glassworks. This is the craftsman who cuts on the “nesting”. The crafts and crafts carved out by them are all used for decoration in the palace or to reward foreign kings, Mongolian and Tibetan kings and Manchu and Han officials. They are very high-grade gifts.

After the Qing Dynasty was overthrown, the glass factory of the manufacturing office also died out, and the glass carving craftsmanship flowed into the people. All jade workshops in Beijing can be made-because the glaze carving is originally a branch of jade carving. The billets, bottles, bowls, etc. originally manufactured by the Gongzhong Glass Factory were also manufactured and supplied by Boshan glass furnaces, and they are still carved by the Beijing Jade Workshop. Its products are white with gold and red as precious, others with white with blue, green and yellow. There are bottles and bowls, and smoking pipes are gone. After the Lugou Bridge Incident in 1937, the traditional crafts were interrupted.

Due to technical and raw material limitations, since the ancient times, only two workshops have been set up in Beijing and Boshan. Boshan’s colored glaze began mass production in the Tang Dynasty, and the Ming Dynasty began to take shape. During the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty, the furnace line Xu Ying initiated the construction of a furnace temple on the New Year’s Day to sacrifice to bless the prosperity of glass production.

Boshan established the first glazed museum at the Red Gate of Yanshan Park in 1983. Visitors can enjoy the long history and splendid culture of Boshan glazed. Among the glazed products, flower balls are the most common. The marble balls that children often play are small glass balls. There is also a set of colored art glass embossed vessels, beautiful and unique. Vase, stationery, etc. carved with yellow chicken oil are especially known as “topaz”. Other accessories, such as bracelets, beads, flower plugs, hanging bottles, and silk, are all loved by foreign and Chinese ethnic minorities. The inner pot is a unique handicraft in the style of Boshan art glass. Some people praise it with the verse of “the sleeve is really big and the pot is full of sun and moon.” Interested tourists may wish to choose one as a commemoration of this trip at the last shopping.

Ancient Chinese glass art has a long history, at least in the Warring States period. In ancient times, glass was called glazed. Today when the term is used by glass artists to refer to modern glass art, in fact, it expresses an identification with ancient traditions.

China is one of the earliest glass producers in the world. But for a long time, glass art seems to have been forgotten in China, and this technology has not been passed on. The success of modern glazed techniques is the glory of the nation, and since then, it has made Chinese glazed into the international art forest.

Glass is made of artificial crystal. Artwork made by dewaxing and casting. The production process can be completed through dozens of manual and careful operations, and a slight negligence can cause failure or flaws. Chinese glazed glass is the perfect combination of ancient Chinese culture and modern art. Its glamorous and changeable beauty is the exquisite, delicate, and subtle expression of Orientals. It is a blend of thought, emotion and art.

The glazed handicrafts, which use the crystal powder dewaxing casting technique as the basic creative technique, are delicate and precise in division of labor and require great patience. First from the conceptual design, it can be completed after 14 tedious procedures such as mold making, plaster filling, dewaxing, high temperature quenching, and post-processing. One of its characteristics is that one mold can only fire one product, and it is in the manufacturing process Each process in the process has uncertain variables. It must have very skilled and superb operation skills, be meticulous and rigorous to complete it. If you are not careful, you will lose power and lose your former power. Such an exhausting work was born.

Boshan glass technology mainly includes big furnace technology, round furnace technology and rice bead furnace technology. Glazed products are called materials. Those who are engaged in firing glazed glass are called furnace makers. From about the end of Yuan Dynasty to the beginning of Ming Dynasty, colored glaze industry began to rise and bright. “Qingzhou Prefecture Records” of Jiaqing records that the glassware came out of Yanshen Town in the early years of Kangxi’s “Yanshen Town Records” and Qianlong period. Boshan County Chronicle records Boshan glazed products in many places.

Big furnace
It is mainly used to produce large items such as utensils (water-sounding goods), bottles, bowls, and sticks. The form of the furnace is a simple “sky cupola”, with a crucible in the center. After the raw materials are put into the crucible according to the formula, it is heated and blasted to completely melt. The blower takes out the melted material and blows it into a shape with a blow rod. The furnace has a lot of molten materials and works hard, which is the basic work in the glazed industry.

Round furnace
Mainly used for the production of small pieces of crafts, such as cigarette holders, flower balls, beads, miscellaneous pieces, etc. Larger stoves are smaller, slightly higher than the ground 60 cm to 70 cm. The crucible has a round work surface, and 6 to 8 people work around the work surface at the same time. After the materials are melted, the person working in the furnace will take the material for work as required. Usually, the material can be discharged twice a day and night, and the work is 10 hours to 12 hours.

Rice beads furnace
Rice bead furnace is a small furnace that can only work for two people, mainly used to produce small pieces such as beads. The temperature of the rice bead furnace is relatively low, and the uniform size of the beads is manually formed in the production process, so the technology is very strong. The smaller the beads, the more difficult it is to achieve consistent size and roundness.

There are many types of glass products in Boshan, including beads, cymbals, drum ornaments, cigarette holders, beasts, flower balls, stationery, vases, snuff bottles with inner painting, silk, etc. Boshan ware is famous for its ability to realistically imitate all kinds of jade, agate, coral and other treasures. The main varieties are dazzling and colorful glazed flower balls and vases made of simple and gracious chicken liver stones. Stationery is quite popular in foreign countries. Topaz-like chanterelle yellow is also a rare treasure. Others, such as carved vases, ashtrays, lamps, and various beads, bracelets, pendants, etc., have a rich national and folk color.

Beads come in different sizes. Its production methods are also different. “Yanshan Miscellaneous” cloud: “Striped beads are entangled, fine beads are diarrhea, large beads are tangled.” Pearls are generally called “rice beads”, which can be divided into round beads, lotus seeds beads, necklace beads, Yaozhu, and Buddhist beads There are five categories, each of which is divided into three categories: super fine, jing fine, and normal.

Material beads are a collective name for various forms of glass beads produced by Boshan. They are divided into three categories due to different specifications, production processes and price grades: rice beads, and round beads, lotus seeds beads, lotus beads, Yao beads, Buddhist beads, etc. Variety, and each variety has a variety of shapes and specifications. For example, round beads have more than 10 specifications such as millet beads “two six”, “five money”, bean-shaped beads, curtain beads, Jianzhu and so on.

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Rolling balls are special in shape and color, and the technology is more difficult. They are characterized by imitation of various precious jade, including imitation coral beads, red agate beads, pine green beads, cat eyes beads, Phoenix eyes beads, monkey beads, lantern beads. , Slag beads and so on. Tube beads are cut by drawing into small hollow glass tubes. Due to the thickness of the tube diameter, the length of the cut, and the color of the tube materials, there are also various specifications and colors. Material beads are a category with a long history in Boshan glazed products, rich in fancy specifications, the largest output and the most distinctive. It has always been a favorite decoration of people of all ethnic groups. One of the national necessities that should be guaranteed by the state has been stipulated today.

Refers to various glassware accessories used on women’s headdresses and children’s hats. The biggest examples are women’s hairpins and jadepins. In addition, there are jade bracelets, earrings, finger pulls, rings, biezis, etc., which are still up to date.

Cigarette holder
That is, the “jade mouth” used for smoking places at the top of dry tobacco rods, including “dry tobacco mouth” and “foreign tobacco mouth”. Although this item is small and cheap, it takes a lot of man-hours. It has to go through the processes of sticky blank, blank, dazzling, jacquard head, pull tube, turn around, inverted head, printing neck, etc., divided into large, medium and small, and has been popular in the country for more than 200 years . It has gradually disappeared.

The beast is one of the traditional small children’s toys made by Boshan colored glaze. It is based on themes of lions, tigers, dogs, horses, cows, monkeys, sheep, etc. It is not long enough. Small bench. “The colors are red and green. There is also a larger body weighing two or three pounds, which the locals call a “lion and leopard”. It is colorful, vivid, and has the style of folk lion dance. It is a representative work of traditional beasts. Boshan’s traditional materials and beasts have rich folk cultural characteristics. They are not only popular among the folk, but also treasured by domestic and foreign art circles, folk art circles, and folklore scholars.

The small toy beasts made from glass are very cute. Because the glazed glass must be softly pinched when the temperature is high, the shape must be simple and simple. Often, the body is exaggerated to a large shape, and the eyes must be very expressive. The zodiac signs, as well as lions, camels, etc., are good works of the artists.

Flower ball
The flower ball is said to have originated from studying abroad. At the end of the Guangxu period of the Qing Dynasty, a material dealer in Beijing brought a Swiss flower ball to Boshan for imitation and named it “Wanhua Ball”, which sold well and promoted it. In this method, various color materials must first be rolled up into braids, cut into sections, and made into a pattern with the cross-section facing up, and then fixed with transparent material to form a flower ball. Bo Shan Kong Qingren’s family is good at this art. Called the “flower ball family.”

Including pen holders, water bowls, paperweights, pen holders, imitation bars, go pieces, and more. In recent years, there have been ashtrays.

There are two types of monochrome and engraved carvings, which are also well-known products in Boshan.

Bonsai is one of the varieties of Boshan art glass. It is made of glass frit with jade patterns and petals, leaves and branches with small holes at the lower end. It is spliced ​​with fine metal wires to form branches and flowers. Flowers like imitation agate, coral, tea crystal, amethyst, hibiscus and other precious jade carvings, and leaves like imitation jade, jade and venus are ornamental ornamental crafts.

Bonsai stacker
The flower stacker is one of the traditional varieties of Boshan art glass. At the part of the newly formed utensil that needs to be decorated, quickly stick the softened coloring material, and immediately use pliers, scissors, iron pieces and other small tools to pull, cut, rub, plasticize and other methods to create multiple relief-like flowers, The shape of leaves or birds, etc., is slightly shaped, and then placed in a decooling box and gradually cooled. The shape of the device is simple and smooth, and the flower decoration is natural and vivid. It can be used as a vase, flower plug, smoking set, lamp holder, etc. It is both practical and ornamental value. It is a popular glazed handicraft art.

Nesting Carving
Nesting Carving is Made by two or more layers of colored glazing at high temperature and made into a container’s green tire. After cooling down and cooling, the traditional jade carving craftsmanship table is used to sculpt and grind the layer by layer according to the design pattern. The innermost colorant is retained, and the patterns and patterns of different colorant layers that have been engraved are set off, which has a relief art effect. Finally, after polishing, the whole body and patterns of different colors are moisturized, like jade carving. Although the shape of the vessel is mostly pots, bottles, cans, altars, plates, boxes, etc., it is generally not practical and is a relatively expensive furnishing crafts. “Sleeve carving” is a unique carving in Boshan art glass.

Inside-painted snuff bottle
Inside-painted snuff bottles are Boshan’s famous crafts. The earliest was the late Qing dynasty Boshan businessman Wang Fenghao who saw Zhou using a small hook-shaped pen and painted a crystal pot at Beijing painter Zhou Leyuan’s house to get inspiration. Since then, Bi Rongjiu, an entertainer in the late Qing Dynasty, has played it and has become a must. Many apprentices in modern times have been trained in fine arts skills to make the skills of interior painting more exquisite. A group of skilled craftsmen who have been trained with exquisite hand-made skills are breathtaking, pushing the art of interior painting to a peak.

The filament is a filament drawn from various color materials for weaving screens, lanterns, etc., which is called “lay silk”.

Chicken liver stone
Chicken liver stone is a famous coloring material unique to Boshan art glazed products. It is named for its color like chicken liver and pattern like good stone. It is characterized by a large number of black stripes hidden in large purple-red. Such as heavy mountains and cockroaches, cloud shadow water marks, and some like ancient wood and odd stones, flowers and grass, the sky is full of fun and imaginative. It is most suitable for making elegant utensils, such as complete sets of study utensils, which are both practical products and simple, elegant and elegant desk furnishings. They have always been cherished by domestic and foreign cultural and artistic circles, and have participated as high-level crafts many times. National and international exhibitions are widely acclaimed.

Chanterelle yellow
Chicken oil yellow, one of the precious pigments in Boshan Fine Art Glass. Its luster is crystal-like as jade, moisturizing and dripping, its color is yellow like chicken fat, it is gorgeous but not flashy, and there is no such color in natural jade, so it looks more and more rare. This material is mostly used to make simple and dignified bottles, pots, cans, boxes, plates and other utensils, carved with relief patterns. Implicitly borrowed and elegant, it is a high-end fine art glass handicraft sold.

Arts and crafts
Boshan colored glaze Carved Art has been pushed to a new height by Zhang Weiyong, a senior craftsman and artist at Boshan Art colored glaze Factory. Since 1974, they have created 9 large-scale carved bottles such as “Three Bone Bone Essences”, “Red Chibi Bingbing” and “Dayu Governing the Water”, one of which weighed more than 5.5 kg before carving. The designs of these works are rigorous, the figures are vivid, the carving is fine, and the craftsmanship is difficult, which represents the highest level of glass carving at that time.

Boshan Fine Art Glass Factory has developed rapidly since the 1980s. At the level of craftsmanship, it has almost made domestic and foreign counterparts look back on it. They have a wide range of materials, elegant topics, and varied techniques, which have high practical value and aesthetic value.

Exhibition hall
The Boshan colored glaze Museum is located in Xiye Street, Boshan District. The colored glaze Museum is equipped with sound, light, and electrical systems, and is equipped with a projector and VCD television broadcasting equipment. The exhibition area is 2000 square meters. The museum has set up ancient glass exhibition areas, modern glass exhibition areas, modern glass exhibition areas, and world glass exhibition areas. There are more than 1,000 pieces of cultural relics, ancient glass, and arts and crafts at all levels. The lifelike “Underwater World” and the living “Animal Kingdom” are the first glass professional museums in China.

The exhibits collected by the colored glaze Museum include some cultural relics collected by the Boshan District Government, glazed exhibits provided by Zibo Fine Glazed Company, glazed exhibits provided by Zibo Aimei Glazed Company, glazed exhibits provided by Zibo Yiyuange Company, and culturally collected cultural relics. The collection includes ancient glass, modern glass sculptures, fine interior paintings, glass products, thermoformed modern glass sculptures, and modern glass sculptures.

Boshan Ceramic Glass Art Center
Boshan Ceramic Glaze Art Center is a national AAAA-level scenic cultural industry project. The main buildings include the Renli Glaze Art Museum, Boshan Art Exhibition Hall, Boshan Ceramics Museum, Renli Ceramic Glaze Experience Hall, Ceramic Masters Hall of Fame, and Renli Glaze. Exhibition hall, mobile master studio.

Boshan Ceramic Art Center. Including Renli colored glaze Art Museum, Boshan Art Exhibition Hall, Boshan Ceramics Museum, Renli Ceramics colored glaze Experience Hall, Renli colored glaze Sales Hall, Ceramic Master Hall of Fame and Master Studio. The pavilions complement each other, including Boshan’s long history of development of ceramic glazing, as well as exquisite displays of modern art masters, with a strong historical and cultural atmosphere and deep cultural accumulation.

Since it was put into use, Boshan Ceramics colored glaze Art Center has successfully planned Taolu culture promotion activities such as Han Meilin’s art caravan entering Boshan, China’s second and third colored glaze culture and art festival, and more than 50 art exhibitions. And with its profound Taoli cultural heritage, high-end and elegant artistic positioning, in the traditional craftsmanship, the creative creation of Lili ink colored glazed glass can be described as a subversive innovation to the glazed glass production technology. Renli ink color is based on Chinese literati’s ink paintings, and it is vividly displayed on glass works of different types such as vases and pen holders. It is a natural art creation.