Baroque architecture In Hungary, as part of Baroque art, it left many decisive architectural monuments from the beginning of the 17th century until the end of the 18th century, mainly in the form of churches, castles and residential buildings. Our most important baroque cities are Győr and Székesfehérvár, but we have a similarly valuable Baroque monuments in Buda, Veszprém, Eger, and beyond the border in Kassa.
Baroque buildings are usually easily recognizable of their particular style. The Hungarian Baroque churches are decorated with one or two onions or dunes. Baroque buildings often have a broken line façade with plaster casting, powerful ledges, giant pilasters and columns. Often striking is the special shape of a round, oval or lust-shaped window. The gates are richly carved in stone decorations and columns or sculptural forms (such as atlases), which generally hold a stone or iron balcony. The façade of the buildings is cut off by a decisive main hat, with a crumpled orchid decorated with crutches, clocks or sculptures. Covering is typically a manhole roof, often a dome or clock tower. The baroque are characterized by colorful facades, from deep red to yellow to gray and blue. The interiors were decorated with frescoes, carvings, stucco and wooden coverings.
Since the baroque period of Hungary’s buildings are mostly German-speaking, Italian or Austrian-born masters, the literature avoids the use of the term “Hungarian baroque”, instead of “Hungarian Baroque”.
History of the Hungarian Baroque
The 17th century grew to three parts in Hungary. The central areas of the Kingdom of Hungary were under the rule of the Turks. The Royal Hungary, that is, the western border and the northern parts under the rule of the Habsburg family, with the center of Bratislava, as the heir of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary, Transylvania and Partium functioned as an independent prince.
In 1683 the invasion of the Christian armies was launched, aimed at expelling the Turks from the territory of Hungary. By the end of the 17th century, it was at the helm of Jenő Savoyai, and the territory of the historic Hungary was completely subjugated to the Habsburg Empire and entered the empire as well as the Transylvanian Principality under special administration. The peace of Pozsarevac, which was concluded in 1718, restored the historical boundaries of Hungary; the southern part, however, continued to operate as a military border guard under the direct jurisdiction of the Vienna court until the middle of the 18th century. The redistribution of the restituted areas was monitored by the New Consortium Committee ; the settlements started, and the constructions that were primarily related to the nobility and the Catholic church. Because of the danger of the Turkish counter-attack, the reconstruction of the defense system started in the southern parts of the country. Contrary to gastronomy or language, Turkish-Islamic culture has remained without effect in architecture in Hungary. The legacy of conquest was treated by the posterity disrespectfully; most of the buildings were demolished and a small part of the building was used (eg Szigetvár parish church).
After the fall of the Rákóczi War of Independence, the rule of the Habsburg House became firm; after III. Charles promised to restore the Hungarian noble constitution, the Order accepted the Pragmatica sanctuary in 1723, that is, the rights of members of the Habsburg House to the Hungarian Royal Title. In the absolutist system, the Habsburgs became loyal noble families, such as the Batthyánys, the Esterházyans, the Erdogs, the Forgáchs and the Karolyias, with the support of the Catholic Church as the leading political role.
Mary Theresa and II. József’s actions, primarily the 1781 Order of Grace, which allowed the building of Protestant churches, and the 1782 Partial Elimination of the Order of Order, launched a series of investments. For example, the former clarinet monastery in Budaör was converted to Parliament for example by the plans of Franz Anton Hillebrandt, although it only took place three times, and became famous as a ballroom. The Carmelite church of St. Joseph in Buda Castle also lost its original function, and in 1784 it was transformed into a theater based on the plans of Farkas Kempelen, which retained its original interior training until the early 20th century.
Most of the work links the baroque temporal extension of Hungarian baroque to historical events, and highlights the period between the middle of the 17th century and the end of the 18th century. Jenő Rados connected the beginning of the era with the beginning of the Thirty Years’ War, by the year 1618, with the destruction of the Hungarian Jacobin movement (1795). Within this period, the early baroque period between 1630-1711, the mature baroque between 1711 and 1760, the classicist late baroque, also known as the copf period, was placed between 1760 and 1795. The prestigious researcher of the time, György Kelényi, marks the year of the peace of Vienna in 1606, and ends the end of the Baroque period in 1688, with the expulsion of the Turks.
The most important architects of Baroque style in Hungary
Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt (1668-1745) – Austrian architect, an internationally dominant figure in Baroque architecture. His most important works in Hungary were the Harrach Castle on the half – tower and the castle of Ráckeve, Jenő Savoyai, but he also designed the estate’s promontory and intestinal estate center.
Anton Erhard Martinelli (1684 BC-1747) – Austrian-born Italian architect. His Hungarian works include the Csáky Castle in Hungary, the hunting lodge of Eszterháza, and his greatest work, the Invadilus Palace in Pest.
András Mayerhoffer (1690-1771) – Salzburg-born master builder in Pest. The only work that can be attributed to him is the Péterffy Palace in Pest, but we know that he led the implementation of the University Church in Pest, and he also attributed the part planning of the Kalocsa Cathedral and the Piarist Church in Kecskemét. The most famous building of his works is the Grassalkovich Castle in Gödöllő, where the staircase signed by Mayerhoffer tells of his participation.
Franz Anton Pilgram (1699-1761) – Austrian Architect, Lower Saxony-based construction master. The most important buildings built in Hungary are the Papal Esterházy Castle, the Kamalduli hermitage of the Mother, the Cistercian of Szentgotthárd and the monasteries of Premonstans in Jászói. The latest literature attributes to her the tradition of Jakob Fellner’s work as well as the planning of the Pope’s parish churches in Tata. His last large-scale work, the Vác cathedral and bishop’s palace, remained on paper.
Melchior Hefele (1716-1794) – Austrian architect, primarily in Bratislava and Vienna. According to his plans, the Bratislava Primate Palace, the Szombathely Seminar and the Episcopal Palace, as well as the cathedral were built.
Franz Anton Hillebrandt (1719-1797) – Viennese architect, from 1757 he was the architect of the Hungarian Royal Chamber of Commerce. He participated in the transformation of the Bratislava and Buda royal residences and made a plan for the transformation of Castle Hill in Esztergom. His name is related to the reconstruction of the Clare of the Buda and the Jesuit monasteries, the Balassa Palace in Bratislava and the Bishop’s Cathedral of Oradea.
Jakab Fellner (1722-1780) – He is a self-taught architect of Moravia, a prominent master of the Hungarian late Baroque. His most important works are parish churches (Tata, Papa) and the Bishop’s palace in Veszprém. He also participated in the construction of the Eger Líceum.
City Planning, Urbanism
While in the great cities of Western and Southern Europe, Paris, Rome or the Great Fire of 1666, London is a major, comprehensive city-building site in the Baroque era, we can not speak of such a thing in Hungary.
The Turkish armies spared Sopron, but after the fire in 1676, the entire downtown had to be rebuilt. In addition to the strong influence of the late Renaissance, the baroque elements of the baroque are already visible in the raised civic houses. This is the Eggenberg House (St. George’s Square 12), the Erdődi Palace (St. George’s Square), the Esterházy Palace (Temple 2) or the Schillsohn House (Templom Street 6). The style of the suburbs of Sopron is reminiscent of many Hungarian cities. The baroque buildings of Székesfehérvár, Győr, Veszprém, Buda, Eger, Kassa are still dominant, although in size and artistic training they are far from Austrian or German cities. After the Rákóczi uprising in Upper Hungary, major restorations were needed; the first significant examples of baroque civil architecture appeared in the towns of Lőcs, Besztercebánya, in these towns. An excellent example is the richly decorated façade of the Klobusitzky House in Eperjes, or the Herritz House in Banská Bystrica.
Buildings generally took place taking into account the existing road network and telecommunications systems of the mediaeval origin; there is only rarely an example of larger, comprehensive urban planning efforts. These include the partially built Pest Invalidus House, the unfulfilled plan of Franz Anton Pilgram for the Vác Cathedral, and the idea of building the Várhegy Castle in Esztergom, from which only landscaping was realized in the life of the archbishop Ferenc Barkóczy.
The settlement settlements and towns are represented by a special settlement type, whose rectangular street network has been designated by military engineers. These are characteristic mainly in the southern part of Hungary and the Banat, such as Zsablya or Pitvaros.
The first permanent theater buildings in Hungary can be connected with the Baroque era. In the first half of the 18th century, during the parliamentary elections in Bratislava, temporary wooden houses were suitable for performing performances and operas. The first permanent building was built in 1775 by György Csáky; in the rectangular floor, one-storey manhole-roofed theater, he designed several showroom rooms, and he also received a suffix for arranging balls. In Pest a year before, in 1774, the first permanent theater building for 500 people was built in a rondel of medieval fortification (1815). However, because of the space gap, II. At the initiative of Joseph, the Castle Theater was soon to be born; from the Carmelite church, the first Hungarian-speaking company was introduced on October 25, 1790 in a theater building with 1200 seats.
With the development of the education network, the demand for new school buildings has increased all over the country. The construction of these buildings was mostly related to churches, and rarely to state organizations. For example, the Jesuits have built buildings on both sides of the church of the Blessed Virgin of Buda Castle for educational purposes. Ten classrooms, their “academy” demolished in 1901, were suitable for color presentations. In the Tatai school of the Piarists, which was planned by Jakab Fellner in 1765, beside the four classrooms there were also two large halls and sertars. After the II. József allowed any denomination to be established and operated, from the last decades of the 18th century new, one or two-storey, artistically low school buildings were built. The most important educational complex of the second half of the 18th century is the Eger Líceum, built on the plans of Josef Ignaz Gerl and Fellner Jakab. The building, which was built between 1763 and 1985, with a stellar, library, theater room and chapel, is a symbol of the ambition of Bishop Barkóczy, bishop of Vác to Eger, who wanted to establish a university in the city. The stairs of the staircase extend into the square inner courtyard of the two-story building. Behind the central facade of the front facade is the hall, while the chapel and the library are in the side wings. The rear wing is dominated by the tower of the observatory. The subtle, relaxed façade of the building is divided by pilasters, plaster bands, and décor-decorated window decorations.
The hospitals also played an important role in the public institutions of the age. In Buda, József Tallherr designed the nursing Elizabeth sisters to convert the abandoned Franciscan Order to the Main Street Monastery into a hospital and be attributed to him as one of the oldest hospitals in the city, still in its original function, to the 1786 soldiers of the Waterway Civic Hospital, today in Batthyány Square). On the Pest side we find the largest health facility in the country, the Invalidus House (1716-1727, currently the Central Town Hall), built as a hospital and as a home for servant warriors. It was originally designed with three-storey wings around four courtyards, with a total of four thousand soldiers in its corridor rooms. The construction was made possible by the donation of Esztergom archbishop György Széchenyi in 1692, and the architect of the complex is generally Anton Erhard Martinelli. Only the western part of the huge building complex imagined in Paris and Prague was built partially. The 47-axis main facade is divided by five rites and three gates. In the middle is the originally three-storey karst chapel, whose location on the roof is indicated by a small clock tower. The St Rochus, outside the city wall, was also a significant hospitals, whose foundations were laid in 1781 and Jung József plans to be completed in 1798.
Among the buildings built in the age, the work of Eger, Mátyás Gerl, and Zalaegerszeg (1730-32) and Szombathely (André Chevrieux, built in 1774, restructured in the 19th century), were built according to the plans of Felice Donato Allio. Among the many town halls, Székesfehérvár, Vác, Brassó, Old Győr, Sopron and Banská Bystrica retain more or less the status of the city.
Baroque mannerism in Hungary
The Keglevich Castle at the Lower Market. The two-storey Baroque-style mansion built in 1760 was built by Keglevich I. Gábor with the Italian master Chrisoforo Quadri.
The first Hungarian architectural constructions of baroque secular architecture were basically related to the rulers’ circles. From 1636 to 1646, the Royal Castle of Bratislava was rebuilt, according to plans by Giovanni Battista Carlone. The Esterházy family’s small residence was transformed by Carlo Martini Carlone between 1663 and 1672, in the early Baroque style. Carlone constructed a tract sheath on the outer wall of the four-tower castle, forming a three-storey façade with typical features borrowed from the Italian baroque. The two floors and the banners decorated between the two, are clustered with Tuscan pilasters, which is crowned by a stout main hatch.
The baroque palace of the Esterházy family’s age remained an isolated example. The noble residences (Sopronkeresztúr, Kabold), which were built in the 17th century in West Hungary, still bear the mark of the late Renaissance, and the transition between the two styles is most evident in the 1668 casket. The situation in Transylvania is similar to that of an architectural master builder of the West, who was designed by Miklós Bethlen in 1669 and was built in 1669 as an Apostle of Saint Stephen. The Baroque effect first appeared in the interior as in the facades: in the 17th century the interior decorated with frescos and stuccoes (Batthyány Castle, Németújvár, Batthyány Castle, Rohonc, Nádasdy Castle Hall, Sárvár, Amber, Castle Room, Bük, Szapáry Castle Hall).
In the areas recaptured from the Turks, the castle of Ráckeve was first built on the estate of Jenő Savoyai in the first years of the 18th century. Architect Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt, the outstanding individual of Baroque. The rectangular courtyard with its rectangular courtyard follows a French- style palace, with Louis Le Havre’s castle in Vaucluse (1657-1660). The castle is not intended for a representative function but is rather resting in the countryside, so its layout on the ground floor has a simple, curvy facade, however, richly decorated, pointing to the designer’s Italian education. The décor placed in the center of the main wing was once dome highlighted (now dead). The mansion is also the first home example of “appartement double” : the rooms of the middle part are not only accessible to each other, but independently.
Besides the Ráckeve mansion, another home made by Hildebrandt, the half – tower Harrach castle and the Hungarian castle designed by Anton Erhard Martinelli also show that the foundations of the genre were made by architects from Austria. Probably Martinelli’s work is the Esterhazy Castle in Küköde, which was completed in 1668 but was used by the ruins of his predecessor burned by Turks to Vienna and an Austrian architect could design the Rimanóczy Castle in Zsuzsa, which was taken over by the family in 1739. The common features of the listed are the two-story facade and the highlighted, accentuated middle-sized windows with larger windows that tell the story of the hall. It was designed by the imperial architect Donato Felice d’Allio that the Batthyány family’s residency in Karmen, with the transformation and decoration of the medieval fortress. The round towers on the edge of the façade, which are left as side streets, not only appear here, but also in newly built castles, bearing the heritage of medieval castles (Szirák, Teleki-Degenfeld Castle, Gödöllő, the first Grassalkovich Castle). Unique, sophisticated works are the Keszthely Palace of the Forgách family (1737 u.-1753) and the Keszthely castle of Festetics (later enlarged and rebuilt).
The Viennese masters, however, typically only worked for the court circles, so the multi-faceted architects also played a role in local masters. In the 1720s and 30s, the castle of Edelény was erected for Ferenc L’Huillier János, probably by Giovanni Battista Carlone, who is from Italy, who is working in Eger and its surroundings. Its façade is quite unusual: the four-story, hexagonal, concealed, middle-altitude roof, hidden behind the main rooftop, has double-decker wings, which are connected with circular planks with bulbous towers.
Transylvanian castles are a distinct category. Here, the richest layer of the nobility tried to build palaces worthy of entrance into the court of Vienna, instead of relying on local masters instead of court architects. Thanks to this, a great mansion of provincial tastes, sometimes even the late Renaissance, was built; the Bánffy Castle of Bonchida, as well as the Wesselényi Castle in Zsuzsa, stand out.
Hungary did not receive much attention in the construction of the royal yard; the exceptions include the Royal Castle of Bratislava and Buda. In Bratislava, from 1751, Jean Nicholas Jadot was the court principal and later his successor to the 1760s, Nikolaus Pacassithe conversion of the medieval castle was planned. In addition to the representative interiors, the new wooden staircase and the chapel, the façade of the building was also transformed, resulting in a palatine-like, ornate look (the design of which has changed so far). The Royal Palace of Buda, which, unlike in Bratislava, was not the starting point of the medieval ruins, but replaced a new building in its place, filling the area with up to 7-8 meters. The expansion of an interior courtyard with a character-like appearance between 1715-1727 was completed in 1748 by Antal GrassalkovichPresident of the Soviet Union, based on Jadot’s plans. Using the existing building, Jadot and Pacassi U made a planar mass with a planter with a double dome decorated with workplaces, with inner courtyards, rectangular planes, and side wings. The work was slowed down in the 1750s, and later FA Hillebrandt made several modifications to the plans: for example, the central hallmark, for example, was the windows that were bigger than the room and the role of the throne room. The palace was completed in 1769, and in one of its inner courtyard was built an oval-shaped chapel for the preservation of the Holy Right (end of the 19th century) in 1778. However, the yard did not use the palace as a royal residence, so in 1777, from Trnavaconverted into a residence-changing university, building a dome on the Danube’s façade, building an observatory tower. The university moved to Pest in 1783, after which the Nazarenes used the palace.
The basic type of Baroque era was the Roman Jesuit Church built between 1568 and 75 by Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola. The Il Gesù not only reported the layout of innovation, combining the benefits of a long marriage and the central arrangement, but the facade of also having a layout specified the Baroque churches across Europe, the Alps line of the north are typically extended in two, seated in the front oldalrizalitjaira tower.
The first Hungarian appearance of the type is the Jesuit church in Nagyszombat, which was built between 1629 and 1637 by Pietro Spazzo. A direct view of the Salzburg dome and the Jesuit church in Vienna could be seen. Its smooth, flat façade is divided in mesh by the pilasters and the powerful ledges; Baroque motifs appear rather as a cover for the somewhat renaissance taste. The significance of Nagyszombat is reflected in the Jesuit (Benedictine) church of Győr built between 1635 and 1641, as well as in the Kassa (1671-1681), Prešov (1709), Trencsén (1711-18) and Cluj(1718-20). Following the Jesuits, the widespread type of church in Hungary is typical of the Baroque type, with three chapels on both sides of the ship, with the same width as the sail, with a straight closing, typically shingle-shaped, cross-shaped or Czech-covered vaulted roof.
By the middle of the 18th century, mature Baroque became increasingly independent of Jesuit traditions. In the case of regular churches and cathedrals, however, certain characteristics have survived: such a double-faced, plastic facade and the varied form of toronys. However, instead of chariot-mounted vessels, uniform spaces were created, sometimes with a lance or violin-shaped layout (resulting from the pivoting of the supporting supports). They were better suited to the principles of the Trinity Council, which were applied to the baroque liturgy corresponding to Hungarian traditions under the leadership of Pázmány Péter in the 1630 Nagyszombat Synagogue. The beautiful examples of the reconstruction of Buda and Pest are the Pest’s Paulic church(Mátyás Drenker, András Mayerhoffer and Márton Siegl built it in 1742, and the church of St. Anna in Buda, which reflects its effect.
The basic type of one-towered Baroque churches in the country was created by Franz Anton Pilgram in Hungary, but the standard plans of the chamber and the construction works played a major role in its dissemination.
Other Religious Buildings
Beyond the temples, the palaces and monasteries, the baroque was accessible to ordinary people, raising a series of smaller buildings that make religion a habit to make everyday use. The most important are the crosses and statues of crossroads, the Trinity statues, chapels and Calvary. These are mostly anonymous local masters, stonemasons and masonry works, although some examples of trust are among the most beautiful memories of Baroque Hungary. Such as the three-towered Calvary chapel in Kőszeg, the three-armed Calvary Chapel in Győr and the Eger’s St. Rozália cemetery, Epreskerti Calvary in Budapest (1744-49, probably by András Mayerhoffer), Vác’s Hétkápolna and Kálvária and the hermits there. The charming example of folk art is the Hungarian Polányi raised around 1770 Calvary with carved statue of wood.
From the beginning of the 18th century the immigration of Jews from Lower Austria, Moravia and Galicia started from the beginning of the 18th century. Contrary to these areas, on the Hungarian soil typically no independent Jews lived in the settlements. In the 18th century synagogues were typically designed by the master builder of the landlord allowing the establishment, or by masters of the settlement. Characteristic is the rectangular floor plan, on the eastern interior wall with the Toro Wardrobe, in the middle, on a brick masonry platform, surrounded by four pillars; these hold the buffaloes of the ceiling. Most of the synagogues known in the era are subtly trained, with their exterior plaster or ornate gold plating from the time of their construction. The most beautiful and well-known example is the synagogue of Mád. In the first half of the 18th century the neo-classical elements were almost invariably replaced by baroque style notes; there was no change in the basic layout of buildings.
Most important baroque synagogues in Hungary
Óbuda, 1767 (rebuilt in 1820, is now in a classical form)
Apostag, 1768 (rebuilt in 1822)
Lovasberény, 1790 (broken down in 1947)
Gyöngyös, 1790s (rebuilt in 1813, now broken down)
Paks, 1795 (now completely rebuilt, used as a library)
Casual Buildings, Temporary Buildings
The unique genre of Baroque architecture is represented by the Efemer buildings, which were born for a celebration. Such were, for example, the two castrum doloris, a celebratory building erected in mourning, which according to plans by Melchior Hefele were made in Stephansdom in Vienna II. Joseph in 1790 and II. When Lipót was burial in 1792. Hefele also designed the triumphal figure during which in 1790 II. Leopold went to Vienna. A similar building was also made in Hungary in 1763, Maria Theresa and its courtesy visit to Vác. The simple but well-managed structure was restored by Antal Kristóf Antal, bishop of Vác from the following year, with his architect, the French-bornIsidore Canevaléval.
The efemer building is not only a scenery, but also a very important dramaturgical element for baroque celebrations. It is part of the court and church policy protocol. The structure with gates, bridges or canopy designs is metaphorically in itself, complemented by flags, coats of arms, portraits, figurative representations, greetings, or farewell figures. Often used in the tree trunk of triumphal artifacts (arcus triumphalis, holz triumpfporten), which, during the reign, communion, communion, and communion of the church, took place on the most important stages of the festive procession. The baroque occasional works include portable, portable efemers, such as the canopy or the moving outdoor stage.
Baroque has the least change in the field of folk architecture. The crippled, but the majority of the little ones continue to live in hedge trunks, in skeletal houses, in latticed, lofty and lizard-like huts, less commonly built in stone or brick, one-room dwellings. In the mountainous, wood-rich landscapes typical of the “block”, ie wooden houses, are typical. The covering was typically made with straw, reed, twine, pear. The gabled houses look down on the street, which is typically combed (this is a good example of Fertőszéplak). The effects of the late Renaissance castles and the city palaces are most likely to be found in the formation and design of the porches: the motifs of Baroque and Classicist architects are reflected on the columns. The peculiar flavors of baroque folk architecture (“peasant baroque”) include façade stucco decorations, which have developed into almost an art branch in some parts of the country (for example, on the Balaton Uplands).
Industrial and agricultural architecture, infrastructure
From the 18th century, very few factory buildings remained in Hungary. The oval floor planed two-storey silkworm was built by József Tallherr in 1785. Tallherr has designed several industrial buildings as head of the National Architectural Directorate, and in 1785 his (still demolished) Szekszárd silkworm was built according to his plans.
There is little building in the 18th century to preserve the metallurgy industry. In Nagybörzsöny you can still see the ruins of the silver engagement raised in 1774, Miskolc – and in Ómassán, the former stronghold of the blast furnace initiated in 1772 by Fazola Henrik. The bigger, more modern novelty of the Ómassai blast furnace, built between 1804-14, is still a precious industrial monument. The three-storey building of the Metallurgical Museum in Miskolc- Hámor was built between 1778-79, originally as a chancellery of the diósgyőr railway stations.
Already in the 16th century there were many dry mills in Hungary, mainly in areas that were far from the water. Their location was taken over by windmills from the end of the 18th century. An original baroque building was not preserved either; our oldest dry mill in Szarvas was built in 1836, and these decades are also the windmills of Kiskundorozsma and the winds. However, there are still several still existing water mills, which are part of the wood from the 18th century – such as the Henál water mill in Zalaegerszeg (today part of the Göcse Village Museum). The TataThe Cifra Mill, which was named after the interior of the stucco-decorated ceiling with its carved wooden poles, won its present form in 1753. Jakab Fellner rebuilt several mills in Tata in the 18th century, of which the Pötörke, Nepomucenus and Miklós mills are still present. Fellner also works around 1780, it built the Great Lake Tata (now Old Lake) bank, thatched, simple structure slaughterhouse.
In the 18th century besides the churches, the most decisive buildings of smaller and larger settlements were the cemeteries. The construction of the masonry, two-three-storey Baroque scaffolds spread from the middle of the century, and it still has many examples throughout the country. There are many baroque cellars and pressing houses in the wine regions, especially in Tokaj-Hegyalja and in the Badacsony wine-growing region. The most well-known examples of these are the house of Rozza Szegedy on Badacsonytomaj. From the 18th to 19th century, One of the most powerful performances of the Hungarian engineering industry in the 19th century is the Miskolc- Lillafüred river basin, Lake Hámori creation. The river basin was needed because of the stagnant water scarcity of Hámori Ironworks founded in 1770. The necessary surveys were carried out in 1799, and in 1809 the Lower Saxony Chamber of Commerce of Lower Saxony commissioned Anton Seidl Chamber Engineer to build. The reservoir of the reservoir was completed between 1810-11. In the same period, between 1793 and 1802, the so – called Ferenc canal connecting the Danube and the Tisza was completed.
Among our few Baroque stone bridges, the Gombás brook bridge in Vác is the most representative. The two-hole 33 meters long crossing was built between 1753-58 by the plans of Ignác Oracsek, and there are six large stone sculptures on the hillsides. Between 1791 and 1993, the 5 – hole Eger-pataki bridge in Diszel was built by Károly Schracz Sümeg Mason. Numerous smaller bridges built in this age still serve the traffic.
Landscape and Landscape Architecture
In the 18th century Europe ‘s gardens were fundamentally dominated by two styles, French and English style. The basic type of the former is XIV. Louis King of France palace of Versailles garden, André Le Nôtre ‘s creation. The contours of the garden are determined by the building, essentially it functions as a geometric, spatial extension. The regular floor plan is defined by straight paths lined with radial radius (shingle-shaped foliage), which are generally radiated from the castle, which generally provide insight into a long-distance building. They are also connected by straight lines or curves parallel to each other; at the intersections of the roads, various garden constructions (gloriette, antique temples, fountains, colonnades, hermitages, shepherd huts, etc.) and statues. They form regular, geometric shaped flower beds (“parterre”); these and the roads are bordered by hedged hedges. A distinctive garden element is a hedge trunk. The so-called English garden, also known as the “landscape garden”, was strengthened against the French trend in England. The essence of the natural effect is to reject the geometrical shapes, the properly planted and trimmed vegetation. The elements referring to human intervention disappear from the garden; among the garden structures there is an (artificially) roman building, which also emphasizes the natural state of the garden.
In Hungary, for the first time, Italian baroque gardens with square-planed ornamental motifs were built, dating from the middle of the 17th century, mainly around the capital city of Pozsony, carrying the traditions of Renaissance garden architecture. Examples include the Pálffy Palace and Wesselényi Palace, as well as the garden of Lippay György Esztergom Archbishop’s Summer Palace, which are known from descriptions and engravings. The most important aristocratic gardens surrounding the Bernolákovo belonged to the Esterházy Palace, where Empress Maria Theresa also repeatedly turned around.
From the middle of the 1700s, in Hungary, the French garden was more typical, but fashion turned back to the end of the century, and the English Garden became popular in the next decades and during the Classicism. Many French gardens were later converted into English (eg Hédervár, Körmend, Kismarton). The former style is still partially preserved, the most important representative of the Fertőd Esterházy Palace garden, but this includes the Nagycenk Széchenyi castle (with the help of the 18th century reconstruction plans in 1981) garden area. Among the Hungarian landscaped gardens in the Baroque period, the Castle Park of Csákvár can be mentioned, the Zichy Castle Park in Vítród and the park of the Khuen-Héderváry Castle in Hédervár (the latter two are Bernhard Petri’s works from the 1790s, also known as the first designer of the Orczy Garden in Pest); but most of these landscapes are related to the era of classicism.
The construction of larger Baroque public buildings, churches and palaces usually meant serious orders for sculptors and painters too. Paul Troger, Franz Anton Maulbertsch, Johann Lucas Kracker, was a serious actor in the era of Hungarian fresco painting. István Dorffmaister and his sons, or Kaspar Franz Sambach.
The leading figure in Hungarian sculpture was Georg Raphael Donner, who worked in the dome of Pozsony, among others. Besides, Philipp Jakob Straub, Philippe Ungleich, Antal Hörger should be mentioned.
18th-century wrought iron crafts typically feature remarkable gates, window lattices and barriers. Outstanding examples include the Eszterháza castle in Fertőd and the wrought-iron gate of the L’Huillier-Coburg castle in Edelény. Henrik Fazola (1730-1779), whose most famous work is shown in the Eger County House, is the most prominent of the profession.
Source from Wikipedia