The “Azerbaijani style” or “Azeri style” (Persian: شیوهٔ معماری آذری) is a style (sabk) of architecture when categorizing Iranian architecture development in Iranian Azerbaijan history. Landmarks of this style of architecture span from the late 13th century (Ilkhanate) to the appearance of the Safavid Dynasty in the 16th century CE.
This historic period has some distinctive features of architecture. For example, the speed of construction, the high labor force, and the overpass have led some buildings to be erratic. During this period, some rulers were in the direction of the road, so some cities were drowned, and some were fired. This situation created an attractive diversity in the architectural style of “Azeri”.
Architectural art of Azerbaijan is one of the leading architectural styles of Iran. Because Persian, Azari, and Isfahan architectural styles originate from that region and spread to all parts of Iran.
When a part of the Aryan tribe crossed the Aran Mountains and headed for Iran and crossed the land of Azerbaijan, they found verandas, huge basements and beautiful palaces with wooden columns. After constructing a new place, they used the Azeri style to build. This style has been widely used in the construction of palaces and houses of the Achaemenid era.
By reviewing the history of architecture, it can be seen that the architecture of Azerbaijan influenced Isfahan architecture. Because during the Safavids, the Safavid temples set the style of wooden houses, which are commonly used in the construction of wooden houses in the towns of Maragha and Binab of Azerbaijan, and transformed Isfahan into an exhibition of this style. Of course, we will focus more on the Isfahan style program.
The Azeri style reflects all the features of the Azerbaijani architects. One of these features is the construction of a double-sided dome in this era
The main part of the fortress “Teprak”, where Khorezmshah’s rulers lived and dominated, was a multi-room two-story building. The central rooms are decorated with beautiful sculptures and paintings. These rooms were the place where they could host special guests. The most important feature of the sculptures is their color. Indirect rooms, rooms and corridors are decorated with various illustrations. Among the sculptures we have come across are several works worthy of note. One of them is the statue of a woman bearing fruit, and the second is a statue of two men who draw a harp. These sculptures, made under the influence of European art, differ from other sculptures.
HU At the beginning of the 7th century, the Mongols attacked Iran’s hospitable land. After they were destroyed and destroyed, they turned this place into an exterminated tomb. He was asked by a mass grave who had fled the Mongols’ attack, “What did you see?” He replied: “He has come, has put in a fire, and has gone away, and has gone away.”
Unfortunately, the Mongols did not abandon Iran. After a while, the descendants of these fierce warriors, like other invaders, embraced Iran’s culture and tradition, and many of them embraced Islam. One of their so-called “Ilkhanians” was crowned as the previous kings of Iran. They settled down in the tents and built many castles and fortifications to live.
But during the reign of Ilhanian, there were not enough architects and artists to rebuild cities in Khorasan, a cradle of Iranian culture and art. Fortunately, architects and artisans who fled the Mongols in southern and western Iran began rebuilding Iranian culture and art.
The first Mongol inspiration, Hulagu Fa’ad, crushed the caliphate. He chose the city of Maraghe as his capital and began to revive Iran’s culture and art, with his Iranian prince guided by the wise Hodja Nasser ad-Din Tusi. In this way, the art of the past was intertwined with the peculiarities of architecture and city-building artifacts in southern and western Iran. The Azerbaijani style of architecture is dominated by these styles, and the “Azeri” (Azerbaijani) style has appeared. The capital of Iran was moved from Maraghe to Tabriz, and from Sultanian to Zandjan. All these cities are located in the north-west of Iran, in the territory of Azerbaijan. In a short period of time, the newly built Sultaniyya has come to the forefront of the ancient cities in terms of beauty and elegance. But as it was not a natural part of it, it was so fast, it quickly collapsed. Numerous attempts were made in the Ilhanian era to correct the destruction of the Mongol invasion. Gradually, many mosques, madrasas and caravansaries were built over the ruins.
Some researchers, such as Abbas Ekbal, say Iran and China, which has been limited, have reached the peak of the Ilhans. This connection had a great impact on all Iranian art, especially in architecture. For example, it is common to use China’s designs and shapes, light blue on the tile, blue on the dome cover, and the roofs of the buildings and towers, like the yurt of the Mongolian yurta. In this historic period, the exterior of the building was made of crude or dried brick and coarse stones. The interior of the building is sometimes covered with a layer of bricks and alabaster. Gradually, most of the buildings used ceramic stickers and decorated tiles instead of bricks. Stacking of brick and tile and drawing on the alabaster are widespread. One of the peculiarities of this epoch is the use of geometrical measurements in the design of architectural constructions. In the “Azeri” style, the diversity of the project is more noticeable than the styles in other eras. And in this style too large-scale construction was never built. For example, Sultaniye Tower and Alishah Mosque.
Examples of this style are Dome of Soltaniyeh, Arg e Tabriz, Jameh Mosque of Varamin, Goharshad Mosque, Bibi Khanum mosque in Samarqand, tomb of Abdas-Samad, Gur-e Amir, Jameh mosque of Yazd and Jameh Mosque of Urmia.
The most important buildings for the Azari style:
Arg of Tabriz
Friday Mosque of Waramin
Friday Mosque of Yazd
Amir Tschachmagh Mosque
Mausoleum of Öldscheitü
Source From Wikipedia