Throughout most of its history, Azerbaijani literature has been rather sharply divided into two rather different traditions, neither of which exercised much influence upon the other until the 19th century. The first of these two traditions is Azerbaijani folk literature, and the second is Azerbaijani written literature.
For most of the history of Azerbaijani literature, the salient difference between the folk and the written traditions has been the variety of language employed. The folk tradition, by and large, was oral and remained free of the influence of Persian and Arabic literature, and consequently of those literatures’ respective languages. In folk poetry—which is by far the tradition’s dominant genre—this basic fact led to two major consequences in terms of poetic style:
the poetic meters employed in the folk poetic tradition were different, being quantitative (i.e., syllabic) verse, as opposed to the qualitative verse employed in the written poetic tradition;
the basic structural unit of folk poetry became the quatrain (Azerbaijani: dördmisralı) rather than the couplets (Azerbaijani: beyt) more commonly employed in written poetry.
Furthermore, Azerbaijani folk poetry has always had an intimate connection with song—most of the poetry was, in fact, expressly composed so as to be sung—and so became to a great extent inseparable from the tradition of Azerbaijani folk music.
In contrast to the tradition of Azerbaijani folk literature tended to embrace the influence of Persian and Arabic literature. To some extent, this can be seen as far back as the Seljuk period in the late 11th to early 14th centuries, where official business was conducted in the Persian language, rather than in Turkic, and where a court poet such as Dehhanî—who served under the 13th century sultan Ala ad-Din Kay Qubadh I—wrote in a language highly inflected with Persian.
When the Safavid Empire arose early in the 16th century, in Iranian Azerbaijan, it continued this tradition. The standard poetic forms—for poetry was as much the dominant genre in the written tradition as in the folk tradition—were derived either directly from the Persian literary tradition (the qəzəl غزل; the məsnəvî مثنوی), or indirectly through Persian from the Arabic (the qəsîde قصيده). However, the decision to adopt these poetic forms wholesale led to two important further consequences:
the poetic meters (Azerbaijani: aruz) of Persian poetry were adopted;
Persian- and Arabic-based words were brought into the Azerbaijani language in great numbers, as Turkic words rarely worked well within the system of Persian poetic meter. This style of writing under Persian and Arabic influence came to be known as “Divan literature” (Azerbaijani: divan ədəbiyatı), dîvân (ديوان) being the Azerbaijani word referring to the collected works of a poet.
Azerbaijani folk literature
Azerbaijani folk literature is an oral tradition deeply rooted, in its form, in Central Asian nomadic traditions. However, in its themes, Azerbaijani folk literature reflects the problems peculiar to a settling (or settled) people who have abandoned the nomadic lifestyle. One example of this is the series of folktales surrounding the figure of Keloğlan, a young boy beset with the difficulties of finding a wife, helping his mother to keep the family house intact, and dealing with the problems caused by his neighbors. Another example is the rather mysterious figure of Nasreddin, a trickster who often plays jokes, of a sort, on his neighbors.
Nasreddin also reflects another significant change that had occurred between the days when the Turkic people were nomadic and the days when they had largely become settled in Azerbaijan and Anatolia; namely, Nasreddin is a Muslim imam. The Turkic people had first become an Islamic people sometime around the 9th or 10th century, as is evidenced from the clear Islamic influence on the 11th century Karakhanid work the Kutadgu Bilig (“Wisdom of Royal Glory”), written by Yusuf Has Hajib. The religion henceforth came to exercise an enormous influence on Turkic society and literature, particularly the heavily mystically oriented Sufi and Shi’a varieties of Islam. The Sufi influence, for instance, can be seen clearly not only in the tales concerning Nasreddin but also in the works of Yunus Emre, a towering figure in Turkic literature and a poet who lived at the end of the 13th and beginning of the 14th century, probably in the Karamanid state in south-central Anatolia. The Shi’a influence, on the other hand, can be seen extensively in the tradition of the aşıqs, or ozans, who are roughly akin to medieval European minstrels and who traditionally have had a strong connection with the Alevi faith, which can be seen as something of a homegrown Turkic variety of Shi’a Islam. It is, however, important to note that in Turkic culture, such a neat division into Sufi and Shi’a is scarcely possible: for instance, Yunus Emre is considered by some to have been an Alevi, while the entire Turkic aşık/ozan tradition is permeated with the thought of the Bektashi Sufi order, which is itself a blending of Shi’a and Sufi concepts. The word aşıq (literally, “lover”) is in fact the term used for first-level members of the Bektashi order.
Because the Azerbaijani folk literature tradition extends in a more or less unbroken line from about the 13-15th century to today, it is perhaps best to consider the tradition from the perspective of genre. There are three basic genres in the tradition: epic; folk poetry; and folklore.
The epic tradition
The Turkic epic has its roots in the Central Asian epic tradition that gave rise to the Book of Dede Korkut; written in Azerbaijani language. The form developed from the oral traditions of the Oghuz Turks (a branch of the Turkic peoples which migrated towards western Asia and eastern Europe through Transoxiana, beginning in the 9th century). The Book of Dede Korkut endured in the oral tradition of the Oghuz Turks after settling in Azerbaijan and Anatolia. Alpamysh is an earlier epic, translated into English and available online.
The Book of Dede Korkut was the primary element of the Azerbaijani epic tradition in the Caucasus and Anatolia for several centuries: 11th-12th centuries. Concurrent to the Book of Dede Korkut was the so-called Epic of Köroğlu, which concerns the adventures of Rüşen Ali (“Köroğlu”, or “son of the blind man”) as he exacted revenge for the blinding of his father. The origins of this epic are somewhat more mysterious than those of the Book of Dede Korkut: many believe it to have arisen in Azerbaijan sometime between the 15th and 17th centuries; more reliable testimony, though, seems to indicate that the story is nearly as old as that of the Book of Dede Korkut, dating from around the dawn of the 11th century. Complicating matters somewhat is the fact that Köroğlu is also the name of a poet of the aşık/ozan tradition.
The folk poetry tradition in Azerbaijani literature, as indicated above, was strongly influenced by the Islamic Sufi and Shi’a traditions. Furthermore, as partly evidenced by the prevalence of the still existent aşık/ozan tradition, the dominant element in Turkic folk poetry has always been song. The development of folk poetry in Turkic —which began to emerge in the 13th century with such important writers as Yunus Emre, Sultan Veled, and Şeyyâd Hamza—was given a great boost when, on 13 May 1277, Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey declared Turkic the official state language of Anatolia’s powerful Karamanid state; subsequently, many of the tradition’s greatest poets would continue to emerge from this region.
There are, broadly speaking, two traditions of Azerbaijani folk poetry:
the aşık/ozan tradition, which—although much influenced by religion, as mentioned above—was for the most part a secular tradition;
the explicitly religious tradition, which emerged from the gathering places (tekkes) of the Sufi religious orders and Shi’a groups.
Much of the poetry and song of the aşık/ozan tradition, being almost exclusively oral until the 19th century, remains anonymous. There are, however, a few well-known aşıks from before that time whose names have survived together with their works: the aforementioned Köroğlu (16th century); Karacaoğlan (1606–1689), who may be the best-known of the pre-19th century aşıks; Dadaloğlu (1785–1868), who was one of the last of the great aşıks before the tradition began to dwindle somewhat in the late 19th century; and several others. The aşıks were essentially minstrels who travelled through Anatolia performing their songs on the bağlama, a mandolin-like instrument whose paired strings are considered to have a symbolic religious significance in Alevi/Bektashi culture. Despite the decline of the aşık/ozan tradition in the 19th century, it experienced a significant revival in the 20th century thanks to such outstanding figures as Aşık Veysel Şatıroğlu (1894–1973), Aşık Mahzuni Şerif (1938–2002), Neşet Ertaş (1938–2012), and many others.
The explicitly religious folk tradition of tekke literature shared a similar basis with the aşık/ozan tradition in that the poems were generally intended to be sung, generally in religious gatherings, making them somewhat akin to Western hymns (Azerbaijani ilahi). One major difference from the aşık/ozan tradition, however, is that—from the very beginning—the poems of the tekke tradition were written down. This was because they were produced by revered religious figures in the literate environment of the tekke, as opposed to the milieu of the aşık/ozan tradition, where the majority could not read or write. The major figures in the tradition of tekke literature are: Yunus Emre (1238–1321), who is one of the most important figures in all of Turkish literature; Süleyman Çelebi, who wrote a highly popular long poem called Vesîletü’n-Necât (وسيلة النجاة “The Means of Salvation”, but more commonly known as the Mevlid), concerning the birth of the Islamic prophet Muhammad; Kaygusuz Abdal , who is widely considered the founder of Alevi/Bektashi literature; and Pir Sultan Abdal , whom many consider to be the pinnacle of that literature.
Caucasian Albania writing and literature
The creation of local writing and literature in the Caucasian Albanian language was related to the Christianization of the country, as it was with Armenians and Georgians. The first translations of religious literature into Albanian were from Syriac. Albanians’ writing and literature in their native languages originated from an objective historical necessity. Socio-economic and political conditions created a basis for Albania’s own literature. In the beginning of the fifth century, Albanic script – alphabet was improved based on arami graphics. Ancient authors,according to the Albanians, still In the first century, they used their own writings. Inthe early part of the fifth century, 52 fonemed Albanian alphabets were enriched with flickering and throat sounds.
Since the mythological and folk poetry
However, there was a rich folklore of socio-political and ethical ideas in the territory of the Turkic-speaking country, with a very large percentage of its population. As the content and sayings, the epics spoken by Dada Gorgud, who had been spoken before by the proverbial words, rhetoric and other literary examples, had gained more popularity. This oghuz epic, which the researchers call “the father of Azerbaijani verbal and written literature,” began to be formed verbally in the VI-VII centuries, and was fully formed in VII-IX centuries.
Written literature entry (ninth century)
Early Renaissance literature (X-XI centuries)
The X-XII centuries are regarded as one of the most productive periods in the history of Arab-Muslim culture, including its important component. One of the founders of this culture, as well as in many fields, Azerbaijani intellectuals have gained great success in literature, with the scientific and artistic works they have written in Arabic and Persian, and have been able to elevate the entire Muslim culture to the highest level.
The literature of the Renaissance period (XII century-the period of 1890)
Though the XII century was considered during the celebration of the Persian poetry in Azerbaijan, Arabic literature has still preserved its position and has even found itself in the face of the skilled craftsmen. The prominent Azerbaijani poets Khaqani Shirvani and Muciraddin Beyleqani, mainly Persian, also used Arabic in their works. In the twelfth century, the Azerbaijani people granted the noble personalities such as Shihabaddin Yahya Suhwar, Yusif ibn Tahir al-Khuveyy (Khoylu) to the Arabic language.
One of the prominent thinkers of Azerbaijan, Shihabaddin Yahya Suhwar, created poetic divan in addition to philosophical tracts. His poetry was closely linked to the Arabic poetry of Azerbaijan. Lyricism, longing and indulgence, laconicity, are one of the main features of the poetry of Suhrewardi.
Poets and literary critics of XII century Nizami Iruzi believe that the king and the sollists should keep talented poets in their palaces to educate them as they want and to promote their wishes and desires through the language and pen of those poets in order to strengthen their power and enhance their influence among peoples. The Court found that the literature of this period of wide spread Gatran Tabrizi, the first Gəncəd up, Shaddadis Palace, then in Nakhchivan, naxcıvansah Abu Duləfin lived in the palace. Therefore, in this period of his creativity, the obliterations of the rulers were more prominent. The author is the author of the first version of Persian “Qawshnama” (or “Qushnama”) and the first explanatory dictionary of the Persian language, “Et-Tafasir” (“Tafsirler”), which did not grow up to our time except the collection of great gifts.
From the beginning of the twelfth century, genius craftsmen such as Abul-Ula Ganjavi, Falek Shirvani, Izzaddin Shirvani laid the foundations of the Azerbaijani literary school in Ganja and Shirvan, bringing a new style to the rich treasure of this literature. The connection between school and real life ədəbisənətlə, representing coherence, Rudəkid the starting Ferdowsi and others. poets, including the Khorasan-Turkestan sculpture of Persian-language poem, developed by Qatran Tabrizi, created a new Azerbaijani poetic style of “splendor”.
The interesting and most controversial figure of the 12th century Azerbaijani poet is Mahsati Ganjavi poet. Most of Mahseti’s poems, written in Persian, mainly in the genre of rug, are connected with the Ganja environment. In his creativity, the mystery of the mystery of love lyric is chosen by his optimism, secularism, humanism. It is then that the rhetoric of Azerbaijani poetry is extensively developed. The growth of our female poets such as Raziyya Ganjavi among Azerbaijani poets can be regarded as one of the greatest achievements of the Impact and Creativity.
In the XIII-XV centuries Azerbaijani literature developed in very difficult conditions. The XIII-XV centuries is a time when palace literature, the poet’s poem is relatively weakened. The prominent poets like Imadeddin Nasimi were strangers in the palace literature, Madagascar, in terms of the idea of creativity. However, poets like Zulfugar Shirvani, Arif Ardabili continued the tradition of the palace poetry.
In the XIV century the Azerbaijani poetry was developing more rapidly. The literature of this century differs from the literary examples of the previous centuries. At that time, epic epics of life appeared more widely. Life boards created in these works, human drawings, show that poetry is far away from mysticism, and its relationships with life are intensified. Arif Ardabili’s “Farhadname” and Asar Tabriz’s “Mehr and Customer” poem are striking works reflecting these qualities.
The ideas of Sufism in the Azerbaijani poetry of this era were widespread. This can be explained by increased internal and external pressure and exploitation. The dissatisfaction of the country’s material wealth, hunger and poverty caused opposition among the masses, and in certain intellectuals and craftsmen it also strengthened the tendencies of dissatisfaction, disappointment, despair. This situation contributed to some of the poets and scholars’ tendency to sufism. This is one of the most prominent representatives of developing the Sufi poetry of Mahmoud Shabustari. He studied madrasah, studied Arabic and Persian languages, his nature, his nephew, the religious-mystical philosophy of the Middle Ages, traveled to the countries of the Middle East, and created a famous “Gulshen-raz” of nearly a thousand. This work is devoted to the theoretical-philosophical issues of Sufism and written in the form of questions and answers. Here are the fundamentals of pantheism, the outlook of the thinker poet.
The tradition of writing Arabic and Persian literary works has gradually weakened since the XIII-XIV centuries has increased the poetry samples in Azerbaijani language. Among the works written in Azerbaijani, Izzeddin Hasanoglu’s two ghazals and Nasir Bakiwi’s novel, Sultan Mohammad Ulcaytuya (1304-1316), is remarkable. The works of Gazi Burhaneddin (1344-1398) in the poems of the Azerbaijani language in the 14th century are of great interest. The folklore is being heard in poetry that glorifies the artist’s love.
One of the poets who played an important role in the development of Azerbaijani poetry in the second half of the XIV century – at the beginning of the XV century was Imadeddin Nasimi. Nasimi has created a great divan in Azerbaijani. He also wrote poetry in Arabic and Persian languages, but the poems are written in the native language to come out of the stage of history, science and culture as a means of strengthening has provided. Nasimi enriched the literary language of Azerbaijan through a lively folklore, and developed poetry in terms of artistic expression, genre, gospel and harmony.
From the 15th century, Azerbaijani literature began to develop mainly in the native language. One of the personalities who played a prominent role in the social and cultural life of Azerbaijan in the 15th century is Jahanshah Haqi. True poetry, music, and folklore have shown great enthusiasm, closeness to the progressive people of the time, favored science and education. The poet continued the tradition of classical Azerbaijani poetry, describing his lyric hero with delicate expressions, beautiful tricks, and colorful artistic dyes.
Koroglu was especially elected among the leaders who led the Celali Movement. Koroglu’s personality and events related to it are widely reflected in the Azerbaijani folklore. The Koroglu epic consists of various sleeves. Each episode has an independent and perfect story character. However, there is a common idea that combines all the branches of the work. This idea was reinforced by Koroglu, his people fighting the feudal lords and invaders. Most of the arms are dedicated to various marches of Koroglu.
The artistic heritage of Azerbaijani poets, who created works in the Azerbaijani language such as Hamid, Bashir, Kishvari in the XV century, was also developed in the 16th century. Since the establishment of the Safavid State, special emphasis was placed on writing poetry in Azerbaijani. Shah Ismail Khatai Palace council functioned poets Sururi, Shahi, mourning, parasitic, Ghasemi as artists took part. Assembly “məlikus-shuara” s – Habibi’s presidency was with. At that time, ideas in literature were also found in the field of free development. In the sixteenth century, Hummel poets were concentrating around the Safavid rulers and tried to comply with the Shiite sect. In this regard, creativity of poets written by the pseudonym of Sururi and Tufeyli is more typical.
The literary heritage of Shah Ismayil Khatai consists of “Divan” written in Azerbaijani language, narrative poems, lyrical attachments, Mesnemiah, and poem “Duhnama”. Khatai used folklore in folklore, folklore, folklore, folklore. In the 16th century, folk creativity, especially the ashig literature, was welcomed not only among the people, but also in the palace. The poems, written in Heca syllable and called “vowels,” were admired in the literary councils held at the palace of Shah Ismail.
In the history of the development of Azerbaijani literature, Mohammed Fuzuli’s creativity is exceptional. His works are the beginning of a new stage in the history of public and artistic thought of the Azerbaijani people with deep content. Fizuli centuries-old literary tradition of culture has mastered them developed new content to the Azerbaijani literature, has artistic qualities. His works include poems written in Azerbaijani, Persian and Arabic, poems called “Conversation,” “Weekly glass,” “Anis zhulb”, “Saheath and Moroz”, “Rindu Zahid” Truthfulness “is a well-known philosophical treatise. In the year 2017, Mohammed Fuzuli’s “Included in UNESCO ‘s World Memory Program Registry.
The 17th-century Azerbaijani literature, along with written poetry, is characterized by the broad development of various forms and genres of folklore. Torture, the benevolent feelings of hardworking masses who suffered from deprivation, were found in their folklore works. The overall rise in folklore and ashug poetry in the history of the XVII century should be regarded as one of the key points. Gangsters and architects, who cited the traditions of the ancient eras, especially the achievements of the 16th century, developed folklore types of art. The process of creating a full-fledged heroic and love epic coincides with the end of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In the seventeenth century, popular epics such as “Shah Ismayil”, ” Ashug Garib “, ” Asli and Kerem ” and “Novruz” were completely formed.
XVI-XVII centuries are the period of ashug art. Thanks to the art and memory of the ashugs, folklore works preserved the original beauty and reached the modern times. Ashi became the main characters in the creation of epic and lyrical works. The ashugs had a great influence since ancient times, but only in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the ashug poetry was on the broader path of development.
The noteworthy feature of the XVIII century poetry is the formation of great poems dedicated to real events and personalities of the time, mainly written in the form of a mystery. These works, selected by historical truth, help to clarify and comprehend the many events of the century and the facts of public and political life. These are the mirrors of the life-shaking of the 18th century Azerbaijanis. The eighteenth century also provided us with a number of interesting prose examples. The most important of these are folk epics called “Shahriyar” by an unknown author on the basis of “Shahriyar and Sanubar”. The episode describes the brutality of social inequality that hinders the love of the beloved. of the eighteenth-century prose Another interesting example of the genre of “thieves and gas” novel. This work is based on the dialogue between the lawyer and the fraudulent.
In the eighteenth century, the main type of literature remained vague. As of the 17th century, the XVIII century was the period of ashug poetry’s rise. In the eighteenth century Patient Gasim, Saimi, Saleh, Urfani, Malali and others. ashugs, as well as poets written by them in style. Distinguishes their poetry with the people’s expectations and desires. In terms of the subject, the poems of love in the real world dominate the motives of love and the beauty of a secular woman. However, these poets did not give too little to the didactic-moral poems about social imbalances, the heavy benefits of ordinary people. The great master of the sacred poetry was Ashig Pasha Gasim. Many of his masterpieces were widely used in the introduction to various epics dating to the 18th century and to the later centuries.
As in the past, in the XVIII century, the theory based on the classical traditions of Oriental lyric was widespread. Nishat Shirvani was widely known for his gentle love ghulds. Arif Shirvani, Arif Tabrizi, Agha Christ Shirvani, Mahchur Shirvani, Shakir Shirvani and others have created many lyrical works in various forms and forms of the word. These poets are united in many aspects of vague, loneliness, dissatisfaction with the rules of the earth, and anger against cruel people.
At the poetry summit of the eighteenth century there are two prominent artists – Molla Panah Vagif and Molla Vali Vidadi. These two friend poets bring many factors closer together. Together they have changed the language of poetry, poetry, and made it more meaningful to the people. Just in the creativity of Vagif and Vidadi, classical and folk traditions are combined. However, each of them, in a unique way, understood and understood the life different from each other, and this has left an indelible trace in their creativity. Vidadi’s lyric is dominated by ghost and sadness. Popularity, richness of the images, polished artistic craft, vibrant and expressive language, optimistic discovery – all these are the most important features of Vagif’s creativity.
The 18th-century Azerbaijani poetry, especially the ashug art and literature, had a certain influence on the poetry of the neighboring Caucasian peoples, many of whom had created whole or part of their inscriptions in Azerbaijani. A striking example of the mutual influence of Caucasian folk literature is the creation of Armenian poet and lover, Sayat Novan, who has created the same success in Azerbaijani, Armenian and Georgian languages.
In the first half of the 19th century a certain revival took place in the literary life of the country. National literary traditions with great and centuries-old history are continuing and developing in Azerbaijani literature, as well as new ideas and artistic trends are emerging, and the first foundations of new literary trends are laid. The first half of the century was a classic romantic poetry, an important achievement of Azerbaijani literature. Abbasqulu Aga Bakikhanov, Mirza Shafi Vazeh, Gasim Bey Zakir, Nabati, Kazim Aga Saliksuch talented poets continue the traditions of prominent representatives of medieval Azerbaijan and generally Oriental classic romantic literature, especially the great Azerbaijani poet Fuzuli, as well as the classic romantic poem, the main topic of their lyrical works and the idea content were love motives. They also create a number of beautiful examples of social-philosophical lyricism, expressing dissatisfaction with their destiny, their destiny, their destiny, their destinies, their fate, their desires and their complaints, opposing superstitious judges, hypocritical clerics, some religious-churches, humanistic ideas they were singing. In their works, the ideas of enlightenment that are newly formulated in the country are also reflected to some extent. This aspect is clearly evident in the work of A.Bakikhanov and M. Vazeh.
The satirical and ethical-didactic poems, which have gained enormous popularity in Azerbaijani and Eastern literature, also play an important role in the literary heritage of poets of classical romantic style. People poets who wrote the poem in the style of the works of Mirza Nadeem reviews, Mirzajan Madatov, Ashiq Peri, Mucrum Karim, Malikballı sacrifice, Əndəlib Qaracadagı in particular, tend to attract attention. These poets reflected their genuine love, feelings and emotions in lively, colorful dyes in the works they wrote in different genres of folk-sheer style – in the embroidery, With poems with high ideals, they have served as important services in strengthening the connection of Azerbaijani literature with real life and its liberation from the influence of all kinds of abstract, divine love motives and religious ideas. There are poems, poems, and stories about the significant historical-political events of the period in the literary heritage of poets of this trend. The works depict the wars of the occupation period, the economic situation in the country, the calamity of the people, the brutality and the famine, and some of the shortcomings of social life.
In the first half of the 19th century, the satirical poetry trend, which has great importance in Azerbaijani literature, has been laid. In Azerbaijan, the satiran’s extensive efforts in this period was abolished in the country by the khanate administration and the establishment of the tsarist bureaucratic management system. During this period, prominent representatives of the Azerbaijani satirical poetry were Baba Bey Shakir, Qasim Bey Zakir and Mirza Bakhish Nadim. The satirical poems of these poets feature a number of features of Azerbaijan’s socio-political life, reflecting the realistic and crucial critical-satirical boards of the time. In their work they sharply criticized the injustices and injustices of the Tsar judges and officials, the arrogance and cruelty of the gens, the hypocrisy and cunning of the clergy, and their sharp protest against the severe, unbearable situation in the country. In satirical works, the essence of the contradictions between the gendarmes and the villagers, who constitute the principal and condemned men of the feudal society, is deeply ingrained in the masses.
In the first half of the 19th century, lamentation, slogans and imitation-formalist poetry continued in Azerbaijani literature, lamentations about religious tolerance, religious poems, and poetry of the Prophet. Representatives of the religious-mystic poetry were Raci, Kumri, Shouai, Supehri, Ahi, poets Sayid Nigari, Mohammed Asgar, Gutgashinli Abdulla, poet poets Molla Zeynalabdin Sageri, Mirza Maharram Hajibeyov and others. In this period, the love and desires of the people, their needs, wishes and desires have been described in the ashug sherles and epics of the people’s life and traditions. The ashug poetry is characterized by high craftsmanship, artistic style, naturalness, vigilance and richness of language.
Mirza Fatali Akhundov has laid the foundations for literary criticism and literary criticism in Azerbaijan. For the first time, he began to use the term “criticism.” The first critical articles in Azerbaijani literature – “About Poetry and Prose”, “Critical Notes” and others. MFAkhundov’s pen. He criticizes ancient luxury, immoral Eastern poetry and prose, defends the best progressive traditions of Azerbaijan and world literature, realism principles in literature and art, and opposes “pure” formalist art.
The second half of the 19th century is the period in which the Azerbaijani literature is fully developed in the new ideological direction, the achievement of great achievements in the world literature system. The foundation of the ideology of enlightenment in Azerbaijan in the early 1850s, the strengthening of the Azerbaijani-Western European and Russian literary relations created new demands, tasks, and reinforced its real reality, causing new literary principles, genres and genres to evolve. had been. This period was connected with the significant achievements of Azerbaijan literature, the new creative method – the formation of realism as a literary method and the dominant position in the literary process.
As in the Western European and Russian literature, the main factor constituting the basis for the creation of new realistic art in the Azerbaijani literature in the second half of the 19th century was organically connected with the ideology of enlightenment and the idea that this ideology was a complete concept of the environment, family and social relationships surrounding it. In the formation of the essence of this concept, human consciousness, character, psychology, spiritual world, the environment, family and public relations play a key role, and the idea of the product of the human being is the dominant one. New literary-aesthetic principles on the basis of ideology of enlightenment in Azerbaijani literature have been solved first in the genre of comedy. During this period, the foundations of the Azerbaijani drama were laid, and he achieved a crucial, decisive position in the literary process, through a remarkable development.
In the 1870s, the basics of drama in South Azerbaijan literature were laid.
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