Azerbaijani folklore is a collection of collective creativity, whose authors are unknown. Along with not only the history of the past, but also the history of the culture of the Azerbaijani people.
Rich Azerbaijan oral folk literature occupies a special place among folklore of other peoples of the world. The first and the most typical collective creativity for the literatures of all peoples is the base of the Azerbaijani literature.
The first examples of verbal folk literature are the ideas of primitive people about their perceptions of everyday life, natural phenomena, hunting, labor and other similar matters, and the feelings they make about it.
The first examples of these feelings are labor songs. Other forms of folklore – tales, epics, wise words, etc. are examples. Oral folk literature is a collective creativity, reflecting the desires and aspirations of the majority of the people, their attitude to various events, and their educational meetings.
Writing oral folk literature – not only for Azerbaijani literature but also for many other sciences such as history, geography, ethnography, etc. and played a major role in the development. It is known that the language of the Azerbaijani people is one of the Turkic languages and it is natural that the motifs and motifs created by the ancient Turkic peoples are widely reflected in the Azerbaijani oral literature
Azerbaijani folklore is rich and deep in the source of literature. The traces of the mythological-artistic outlook are still manifest in folklore and classical literature. Azerbaijani mythology is not as systematic and integral as Ancient Indian, Ancient Greek mythology. However, it is possible to trace the traces of the Azerbaijani mythology in Azerbaijan folklore. They contain more details of the cosmic and seasonal, as well as certain details of ethnographic myths. Manthe mythical elements of the early formation of society, chaos with space, that is, the world of disorder, irregularity, the world order from this disorder, and the reflection of the same relationships in the human society. In mythical outlook, a set of rules adopted by many people in the human society, such as the cosmos, basically involves the leading position of society – mutual understanding between family, home, nature and nature. Different elements of the mythological outlook have been preserved in texts related to the folklore’s witchcraft, applause, cursing, narration, gossip, and celestial ceremonial. In the majority of mythological texts of Azerbaijan, ancient Turkish mythological thought acts as a leading motive. This can be done in the cosmic myths related to the creation of the world, it is possible to see in the mythical myths related to the origin of the ethnos, as well as in the calendar myths related to the seasonal processes. Creation of mythological texts and their preservation in the form of folklore texts are closely related to the primordial human nature and nature.The desire to influence the nature forces through word, action, and play has caused the need to create and perform mythological texts in primitive manuscripts. Among them are “Kosa-Kosa”, “Gode-Godu”, “Novruz”, “Khidir Nebi” and others. ceremonial songs and accompanying dances.
Common Turkish folklore
One of the peculiarities of Azerbaijani folklore is its commonality with folklore of other Turkic peoples. The overlapping of many texts in the oral tradition of these peoples shows that these examples are formed in a single ethnographic space. Among the epics related to “Oghuzname” are a special series. In the epic “Migration”, “Ergenekon”, “Bu”, “Return”, the whole problems of the prototurks in their entirety have their artistic-mythological reflection. Most of these samples were reflected in the work of the Turkish scientist Kashgarli Mahmud “Divanu dictionary-it-turk” (“Divan of the Turkish language”), who lived and created in XI century. These epics contain the artistic-mythical outlook of the great migration of peoples.
The richness of the folklore genre
Azerbaijani folklore has a rich genre. Tale and epics from epic folklore genres, proverbs and rhetoric, which are expressions of folk wisdom, have greatly influenced the history of folklore and classical literature of neighboring nations. Various aspects of the life and the life of the people are artistic and emotional. The ancient Turkic nations have their own poetry and this poetry was created in the syllable or “finger” slogan of the Turks. Although the number of poets in different poems is different, long epic poetry and epics have been created in a seven-dimensional form. Such poems are better protected in the memory of man. There are seven verses in each of the bay’ats, one of the richest genres of Azerbaijani folklore.
Folklore genres are divided into two categories: archaic and contemporary genres. In the genres of folklore genres, trials, pronouns, spells, prayers, prayers, applauses, and curses take place widely. However, this is a condition of division; since the process of folklore formation goes all the way up to date, new genres are added to these genres on a regular basis.
In terms of the event or process, the ceremonial folklore and labor songs are distinguished. The ceremony folklore also includes seasonal ceremonies, ceremonies related to various natural phenomena, household ceremonies, weddings and mourning ceremonies. One of the richest hits of Azerbaijani folklore is bayat. Bayathians serve to express a person’s lyrical-philosophical feelings in a comprehensively poetic manner. Among the content types of this poetic form are lying, whispering, whispering, citation of words, holavard, vsefi-hal, etc. there are examples. In addition, examples such as bayat-baylama, bayat-ikamet, bayat-riddle are also included in this poetic form. Bayats are composed of four mischans and seven syllables each. The system of inculcation is basically aaba. Since history has been given a lot of thought in Turkish poetry, There are many samples of bayat, which are punctilious in their rhymes. One of the forms of the bayat’s form is the first type of rhinoceros. These bayats are more common in Kirkuk folklore. In Bayatha, the first and second verses usually play the role of preparation to express the meaning.
One of the widespread lyric folklore genres is folk songs. These are poetic texts of different shapes, which are bound to specific musical motives. “Aman Grandma”, “Ay lolo”, “Sona bulbullar”, “Susan Spike” and others. folk songs are still in the repertoire of singers. Folk songs are selected for solo, chorus, and henna. From the chronological point of view, legends from epic folklore genres are first considered. The main feature distinguishing legends from other epic genres is the participation of fantastic elements and events. Unlike the magic tales that are the bearer of the same sign, the plot in the legends does not have any character and is only a fragment. According to the content of the object and the event, the legends in Azerbaijani folklore are cosmogonic, zoonism, toponymy, ethnographic, religious, historical, heroic, etc. character. The oldest legends are examples of the universe, the world, and the creation of the celestial bodies. After the legends and stories between the genres of Azerbaijani folklore, fairy tales form the most common examples of epic.
The proverbs and sayings are widely spread among epic genres of Azerbaijani folklore. The generalized summary of the experiences gained by the people for many centuries, the proverbial proverbs and sayings were widely spread among the Turkic peoples and in many cases replaced the Code of Ethics in society. The first examples of this genre are found in the classic written monuments of Mahmud Kashgari’s “Divanu dictionary-it-turk” and “Kitabi-Dede Gorgud”. Oghuzname, a special ancestral word group representing the wisdom of the Oghuz tribes, is one of the most valuable monuments of Azerbaijani folklore.
Dramatic genres of Azerbaijani folklore are represented by folk dance and challenge performances. The most dramatic example of this is the drama “Kosa Kosa”. After the adoption of Islam, widely spread among the people about the tragedy of the saints of the Prophet’s family are among the folk dramas.
Azerbaijani folklore for children
A large group of Azerbaijani folklore samples are specially created for children. These are examples of lyric, epic, and dramatic species. Genre genres related to lyrical genre: lyrical, lyrical, sag, children’s songs; epic genre: riddles, misleading, careless, child tales; dramatic species include children’s plays and performances.
Azerbaijani folklore in the Middle Ages
Medieval places have a special place among the stages of the Azerbaijani folklore development. During this period – the genre of the epic in the XVI-XVIII centuries was especially developed, such as Gurbani, Tufarganli Abbas, Sari Ashug, Patient Gasim. Medieval love epics, mostly related to lore, are “Gurbani”, “Ashyg Garib-Shahsanam”, “Asli-Karam”, “Abbas-Gyulgas”, “Shah Ismayil-Gülzar”, “Tahir-Zohra”, “Alikhan Pari”, “Arzu-Gambar”, heroic epic “Koroglu” is the product of this era. Unlike love epics, ” Koroglu”The epic of the epic” Koroglu “epos includes a number of additional subjects during the formation of the Celalis rebellion in Turkey and Azerbaijan in the XVI-XVII centuries, increased, and in some cases mythical motifs were also used.
Since folklore samples are essentially anonymous – unauthorized, ashug literature, which is a specific author, has a special place in the Azerbaijani folklore. The greatest figures of the ashug art, founded in the 16th century and continuing to our day, are termed “masterful ashugs”. Gurban is named as the first master ashug in Azerbaijani folklore. The Gurban was older than Shah Ismail Khatai (1487-1524) and had relations with him. It is possible to get some information about the folk artists from the history of the Safavids and the epic “Gurban”.
Three hundred years of Azerbaijan tradition has been instrumental in the growth of the mighty folk artists such as Ashig Alasgar (1821-1926) in the nineteenth century. In the work of Ashug Alasgar, the lyric motif is a moral and didactic motive. This craftsman has had a great impact on the development of the subsequent ashug literature, as well as the written poem. The 105-year-old lover’s life has been reflected in many historical events and personalities of this era.
Azerbaijani oral folk art, especially the ashug art, had a profound effect on the literature of the neighboring peoples, and written and written some Georgian and Armenian poets in Turkish. The 18th-century Armenian poet, Sayat Nova, wrote the majority of his poems in Turkish (Azerbaijani), where his grandchildren did not like it now.
The first examples of Azerbaijani folklore came to us in writing in the ancient Greek historian Herodotus “History” (V century AD). These are the products of folk art thinking about the reasons for the collapse of Midia and the occupation by the Iranian state. These legends were written in the work of Herodotus with Astiag, Tomris and other names. Herodotus, who had written not only a work of art but also a work of art, also worked with high artistic and legitimate Azerbaijani legends and created effective psychological scenes. The legend of “Tomris” is more remarkable in this respect. The Midian warrior, Heroist Tomris, who defeated Midian on the ground for the occupation and defeated the Persian king, defeated him and put her blood on the ”
The epic of ” Kitabi Dada Gorgud ” is the largest monument of Azerbaijani folklore. Different images and motifs of this epos have influenced subsequent Azerbaijani folklore and classical literature, but are not generally preserved in the oral tradition. Therefore, the epics of “Dede Gorgud” are also included in the literature as a written literature. This principle is also expected in this article.
The songs are one of the oldest and most widely used genres of lyrical species. It is divided into several parts: labor, ceremony, season, heroism and everyday life.
Labor songs are songs created and read in the labor. Holzavs and cursive words are one of the most widespread types of labor songs.
Holavers are songs about farming and farming. Ethnographic features in the Holidays, the name of production tools, the bull, and the definition of the spit are often found. For example:
The golden bull, the place,
the place of the castle castle, the
sting, the leopard,
since the enemies look.
Citizen’s words are songs created by sheep. Citizen’s words are usually read to the sheep and are blessed from it. For example:
My grandmother, put a pint,
put an inch of wool.
The shepherd is sick of you,
give milk, peace, sheep.
Ceremonial songs have been created in connection with various ceremonies. Wedding songs and mourning songs are among the most common types of ceremonial songs.
Wedding songs are composed of singing, singing, rehearsal, singing, bride-to-brim. In such songs, fidelity, loyalty, trust, beauty, and courage are preached. For example:
head of the golden rag,
If I say no,
Yandırram mountain, stone.
Sears (mourning songs) are read in terms of death and disaster, and the content of grief, sadness, sorrow, and anguish is strong. The networks are called “done”, “made”. It can be both prose and prose. Sometimes the good qualities of the deceased are expressed. For example:
The moths in the bush
, the stinging, the leaf nets,
I stand upright, my dear, my
land is crying.
Rotary sky doves
Pulling on roads.
Seasonal songs are read in different chapters of the year. Songs from the season are songs such as “Saman”, “Khidir Nabi”, “Yel baba”, “Smoke, Frost”, “Sun, Exit”, “Rain”. For example:
A father, grandfather,
sacrifice to you, come, father.
Our tail remained in place, we
A father, father, Father,
come on you father.
The following song shows the stories of ancient Azerbaijanis in summer, summer, autumn, winter:
The three are our oil, the
three are the paradise.
He collects three, brings them,
shoots three, destroys them.
Heroic singing usually calls for war, fear, bravery, bravery, warriors, usually during the battle or before the war. Songs from the heroes of Koroglu, Gacaq Nabi, Fugitive Karam, Qatar Mammad are songs of this kind. For example:
Down the horseshoe waist,
and ridiculers, pull down from the throne of Hockey!
Let us lower his belongings, weeds, and weeds
The lanterns are songs that mothers and grandmothers read while singing babies. Although lilies usually contain 4 mice, there are sometimes five-dimensional layers as well as bayat. For example:
4-letter lute (aaba)
Laylay, five, laylay
, my house, my wife, laylay.
You get a sweet sleep,
Doctor Keeps your cage.
5-letter lute (aaabb)
Do not cry so much, Do not
climb my heart,
Stop clinging to sleep.
Laylay, my son, laylay,
Bond, Noah, laylay.
In contrast to the layers, the singles are songs that are read to shake, cherish, and inspire the child after awakening. Sometimes these are called “whisperings” or “cherishing”. While lilac is dominated by low tones, there are cheerful, rhythmic, and jokes as well. For example:
The birds in the sky
sacrifice this baby.
This is the sacrifice.
Unlike songs, the songs have their own atmosphere and melody. For example:
friend, Fill out, give me a try.
I’m looking at you.
What’s the other?
Although the songs promote the ideas of beauty, freedom, and patriotism, there are more songs dedicated to love. The romantic feelings of love in songs such as “Three-headed durna”, “Ahu”, “Rose opened”, “Keklik”, “Bulbullar oxur” are associated with the beauty of nature.
Socio-political songs: “Rose opened” (“I’m not from the back”), “Blood bought”, “Here is the convoy of prisoners”, “Sona bulbullar”, “Çal papak”, “We are separated from parents”. In these songs, the inner crisis of the lover who can not overcome his love, the forced exit of his homeland, the captives of the captives are expressed.
The songs, such as “Sarani”, “Sona bulbullar”, “Samovara burn”, “Lachin”, ” At the bottom of the tower “, ” The stone is coming from the window” differ in terms of volume, poetic structure and composition: two, three, four can be composed of paragraphs; There are five miscellaneous, six, seven, or even ten letters in a number of songs; some of the songs are recycled, and the other is transmitted.
Uzeyir Hajibeyov praised the songs: “The handwriting is a great material that can determine the character of the Azerbaijani people, describing taste-music, poetry and music, so it’s music, literary, psychological, or ethnographic. is great. ”
The most widely circulated genre of lyric genre of oral folklore. Unlike singing and songs, bayats have fixed form-genre features. The bay’ats are literally four poems, each of which contains seven syllables. The first, second, and fourth figures of the bayat are freely accessible, and the third one is freely (aaba). Usually, “I am in love” (or “I am laughing”) starts with the words “Aghamim”, “Azizim”, “Aziziyam”, “Elami”. The main idea is mainly in the third and fourth editions. The first and the second passages form the basis for the last verses. Many examples of singing, laughing, puzzling, chanting, singing words and songs are often in the form of bayat, but differ in content. For example:
I fell in love with me,
Ox hit, passed from me.
Well, I’m a bridge,
Yaman has passed away.
While most of the bay’ats are in love, there are also bay’ats who carry social-philosophical, moral-educational content, love for motherland, family, parents and love. Literature and creative writing at minstrel Bayatilar are met: Yellow Love, Xəyyat Mirza as pegs, Shah Ismail Khatai, MƏmani, Gasim bey Zakir, Məhəmmədhuseyin Shahriyar poets such as skillfully taken advantage of this genre.
Mehdi Hussein said: “It is more accurate to call the strongest examples of the bayat as a love lyric, where all the subtle human feelings are transmitted through deep and sincere artistic images.”
Legends are based on the outlook of the people, the way of thinking, the desires and desires. The main feature distinguishing legend from other genres is the fact that unusual, supernatural stories and events that are taken from the realm of the legend, the modern mind, the imagination, the fiction, the fiction. In legends there is a sense of hatred, love for beauty, disgust and disgust.
There are following types of legends in context-content:
Zoonimic legends: “Maral”, “Qu Bird”, “Golden Snake”, “Turac”, “Snapper”
Toponimic legends: “Peri castle”, “Siyazan”, “Mount Beshbarmak”, “Sangachal”, “Dadunesh”, “Demirgaya”
Ethnonymic legends: “Oguz”, “Bayat”
Kospanonic legends: “Ayla Gunesh”
Samad Vurghun’s poem “The Legend of the Moon”, Elijah Afandiyev wrote “The Soul of the Ape” and “Jesus-Musa” on the basis of popular legends.
Traditions have always been true, but conversations that have lost their original accuracy, when they go through the mouth. Therefore, they always begin with the words “according to the legend”, “what is said,” and “they narrate it.” For example:
According to legend, the famous Persian-Tajik poet Sadi Shiraz went one day on the road. Suddenly, a brickman on the road listens to a man’s humor about how his poems came. When the poet did not say a word, he dropped the dirt on the crockery to drain the drain and started to scatter them. If your brick did not see it, he would shout:
“Is a man crazy? What are the sins of these bricks that break their arm? I have been working hard for them!
“But what is my fault of my poems, that you break their arm?” Did I not work for them?
There are two types of legends:
Historical Identities Legends. For example, there are reports of Nasimi, Habibi, Shah Ismayil Khatai, Mohammed Fuzuli, Molla Panah Vagif, Ashig Alasgar and other literary-historical personalities.
Legends about geographical areas. For example, the narrations of “Mountain of the Mountain”, “Bridge of Bridges”, “Bibiheybat”, “Shusha” and “Khatun Arhi” are the narrations of the place names. Jafar Jabbarli’s “Maiden Tower”, Mikail Mushfig “Shepherd”, Samed Vurgun “The Lion’s Rock” poems, Ilyas Afandiyev’s story “Mountain of Darkness” from the public narrations.
The anecdotes are compact and funny stories that reflect the flaws in social life and everyday life. Laughs on the basis of anecdotes. Azerbaijani oral folk literature has heroes such as Bahlul Danen, Molla Nasreddin, Abdal Qasim, Ayrım Tagi, Mirza Bagi, Haji Day. Their most famous is Molla Nasreddin. Molla Nasreddin, in his speeches such as “Do not make a home”, “Do not count on my mind,” is a pity, sad person.
Jalil Mammadguluzadeh called his satirical magazine “Molla Nasreddin” as a sign of love for Molla Nasreddin, which was nicknamed by himself.
The greatest genre of epic type is the most loved and largest genre. In fairy tales, evil is evil, darkness with light, death with life, and falsely fighting, and always good for evil, truth, light is darkness. Magic, amusement, witchcraft, gossip, dragon and so on. most of the fairy tales are fantastic fantasies.
The main features of fairy tales are the reflection of the things of nature and of nature, the transformation of human traits to things and animals, and depictions of epic poems. Tales, as a rule, begin with a small pretext, called caramel, and in the form of monotonous. This is a key feature that distinguishes the fairy-tale from other genres. It does not sound like the main content of the tale.
After the trumpet, the words “there is one, there is none, there is none other than God”, “One day, in Mammadnasir tin”. Traditional sentences are used to combine incidents in tales: “Fairy tale will become dull”, “Little gone, away…”, “Like the stream from the hills like the hills…”, ” here in a sophisticated language “and so on. The tales end with a unique ending.
Tale of theme, description, and techniques are divided into several groups:
Magical tales. The fairy tale of magical powers is called magic tales. Heroes are fighting against divisions, dragons, and various spells. “Malikmammed”, “Shams and Kamer”, “Magic ring”, “Prince Mütalib”, “White horse boy”, “Shoot, bastard, shot” and so on. fairy tales are magic tales.
Tale of Animals. The heroes are different fairy tale tales about animals. The figures in these fairy tales are given in allegorical terms; lion – cruelty, rabbit – cowardice, wolf – symbol of prey. “The Fox of the Fox,” “The Lion,” “Chilly Million,” “The Lion and the Fox,” “The Witch Monster”, “White Bird’s Tale”, “Fox and the Wolves” tales are fairy tales about animals.
Historical tales. Tale of tales related to the life and activity of historical personalities are called historic tales. There are tales about Dara, Iskender, Anushiravan and Shah Abbas in our literature. For example, in one of the tales of Shah Abbas, he (the “Three Sisters”, “Salih and Valeh”) is portrayed as cruel, oppressive, and in the latter as a good, paradise (“Baftachi and Shah Abbas”, “Shah Abbas’s Birth”).
Family-fairy tales. The fairy-tale tales that are closely related to the daily life and lifestyle of the people are everyday life tales. Domestic fairy tales are more common than other groups. “Seven siblings, one sister”, “Usta Abdulla”, “Orphan Ibrahim”, “Elijah’s Tale”, “Dashdemir’s Fairy Tale” and “Manned Man”.
Foxes, foxes, tunnels
Smart old man
Vietnamese fairy tales
Indonesian fairy tales
Iranian fairy tales
Proverbs and sayings
The words of the ancestors are comprehensible and profound words that reflect the richness of the life experience of the people and the truths that have been repeatedly tested. For example:
The honey does not eat honey;
Angry head does not mind;
Hot Iron Warmers;
The homeland of the country is known abroad;
Power is combined;
Hand power, flood power.
In the words of the ancestors propagation is proud, courage, wisdom, patriotism, industriousness, humanism. The words of ancestors are similar to aphorisms in written literature. The words of ancestors can be both prose and prophetic.
Although the words of the ancestors refer to parables, they are separate genres. In the words of the ancestors the idea is exhausted and complete. They work independently and express a clear idea. In the papers, the idea is incomplete, and interpretation is needed. For example:
The fat is in the fat cube;
Doyan is like a late one;
They said that they were covering the door and said that the wind was blowing;
Not a brother but a mere brother when he eats it.
When the texts are fully developed and formulated, the proverb becomes the words.
One of the compact genres of the epic type is puzzles. It is used to test the mind’s ability and knowledge of the listeners and is referred to as superficial signs and it is necessary to find the item itself. The puzzles must certainly be joined by two parties. They can be both prose and prose. For example:
It does not burn in the fire,
It does not sink in the water?
Popular games: “Khan game”, “Motal-motal”, “Whose hand is on hand”. At least four people should attend the “Han game”.
People’s performances: “Brave Brother”, “Kosa-kosa” (this is also a game), “Not a memento, but a common brother when he eats,” “Bic.
The performance “The Brave Brother” consists of three parts. Here is the idea of love and labor, and one-on-one “Bic servant” promotes moral purity. Unlike games, performances are performed to show others.
Folk dancers are religious performances. “Gossum’s wedding night” is one such play.
Source from Wikipedia