Automobile in Japan

An automobile is a car that runs on the road without turning the rails or overhead lines by rotating the wheels by the power of the prime mover. In this section, we will explain the car in Japan.

Legal definition
In the Road Traffic Law and the Road Trucking Vehicle Law, the definitions of “motor vehicle” and “motorized bicycle” are different as follows. In the Road Transport Law and Road Law, the same definition as the Road Transport Vehicle Law is used.

Road Traffic Law
Automobile: a car that uses a prime mover and drives without depending on a rail or a catenary, and is a bicycle with a prime mover, a wheelchair for a bicycle and a physically handicapped, a walking assistance car, or any other compact car specified by a Cabinet Order (Hereinafter referred to as “walking auxiliary vehicle, etc.”) (Article 2, paragraph 1, item 9 of the same law). Therefore, although motorcycles are also included in “cars”, trams and trolley buses do not fall under rails or overhead lines.

Motor bicycle with motor: bicycle with prime mover It is a car that uses a prime mover with a total displacement of less than or equal to the size specified by the Cabinet Office Ordinance, and drives without depending on rail or overhead wire, for bicycles and disabled people Other than wheelchair and walking aid etc etc. (For details, refer to the motorized bicycle # Road Traffic Act)

Road trucking vehicle law
Automobile: A tool manufactured for the purpose of moving on land by a prime mover, one that does not use a rail or overhead wire, or a tool manufactured for the purpose of moving on land by towing by this, with the prime mover prescribed in the next paragraph Things other than bicycles (Article 2, paragraph 2 of the same law). Motorcycles are “two-wheel light vehicles or two-wheeled small vehicles”.

Motorcycle bicycle: It is a tool manufactured for the purpose of moving on land by a prime mover specified by Ordinance of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism or a motor with a rated output, without using a rail or overhead wire or by pulling it by this to move on land A tool manufactured as a purpose. (For details, refer to the motorized bicycle # Road trucking vehicle law)

Mini cars are motorized bicycles under the Road Trucking Vehicle Law, but under the Road Traffic Act they become cars.

Regulation by JIS
JIS defines vehicles in terms of JISD 0101 vehicle type (enactment date 1964/03/01, latest revision date 1993/02/01). It is defined as a vehicle that has a prime mover, a steering system, etc. It is defined as a vehicle that can run (strike) on the ground by getting on it, including a vehicle (such as a trolleybus) connected to a catenary line, and on a ground rail It is said to exclude those running (running). Automobiles are classified into road vehicles and off road vehicles depending on the location of use, and motor vehicles, trailers, connected vehicles, mopeds, motor cycles are clearly indicated as belonging to on-road vehicles (See JIS search for details).

The above definition of JIS is the provision of the term used within the JIS document and is not stipulated as laws and regulations. However, since the original plan is prepared by the Japan Automobile Technical Association, it is a summary of the classifications that the automobile industry in particular has followed. For this reason, even in the industry, documents that are similar to public documents, such as the documents of the Automobile Manufacturers Association, are in a certain range within this range.

In Japan, in January 1898, it was the first time that a car from France was tried between Tsukiji and Ueno. At this time it costed a large amount of imports, so it was a wealthy people called money, and those who could only possess some high-profile people, became a symbol of identity. The development of the road has not progressed at this time, and the importation of the car has become a catalyst for the improvement of the road.

Initially most of the imports from the United States, especially Ford Motor built an assembly plant in Yokohama in 1925 or 1926 and started production with the truck as the main production, General Motors built a factory in Osaka in 1927 The focus was on Chevrolet brands and focused on expanding sales, but it was said to be about 500 Chevrolet for Ford 5,000 units.

The number of car owners in Japan continued to increase slightly at a rate of about 1,000 units per year since then, it was 12,765 units in 1923 (Taisho 12), but the public transportation system was destroyed by the Great Kanto Earthquake on September 1, It increased to 24,333 units in 1924 (Taisho 13th year), 40,070 units in 1926 (Taisho 15th year), due to the recognition of the value as ” While the reverse winds continued, such as the 1929 World Depression, it gradually increased afterwards.

Domestic production and popularization
As the militaristic tendency gradually strengthened in Japan, the policy was set to start production of domestically manufactured trucks in 1935 when the automobile manufacturing business law was enacted from the viewpoint of national defense, and from 1936 (1942) full-scale domestic production The production of cars began. The Ford Motor and General Motors factories were unable to do business and were forced to withdraw.

When Japan lost to World War II, US soldiers and civilians who entered to occupy Japan brought in a large number of cars, and used them like clogs. As a result, Japanese people have longing for cars, and the potential demand for passenger cars has increased. Manufacturers in Japan also resumed production of automobiles with permission from the Allied Command Commander General Command of the Allied Forces, and thereafter the cost can be reduced due to mass production, the cost can be further increased by cost reduction, and the Japanese automobile industry can rapidly As it evolved, popularization advanced. At the end of 1965, the number of Japanese car owners in Japan reached 8,123,096.

Traffic death accident
In Japan, pedestrian fatalities are more frequent than in each country, so it is necessary to raise awareness of pedestrian priority, improve infrastructure for car control and pedestrian bicycle protection. Traffic crime such as drunk driving, over speed, illegal parking inducing accidents, obstruction of crossing pedestrians, etc. are prevailing. Also, the lack of knowledge / consciousness that light vehicles such as bicycles legally traveling on the roadway are also noticeable. In addition, traffic accidents sometimes give out the dead including the car driver himself, and sometimes the economy has a big influence by hindering traffic. The condition for the car to travel has been improved to some extent in the early 20th century, but vehicles like heavy vehicles pass by the pedestrians, sometimes collide and kill and injure a large number of people Therefore, traffic accidents are still a big problem.

Automotive regulations
In the period of high economic growth, exhaust gas from automobiles and other industries became a social problem, followed by automobile emissions regulations. Likewise, emission of nitrogen oxides became a problem, so it was stipulated by law according to the Special Measures Law (NOx regulation) concerning the reduction of the total amount of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter discharged from automobiles in specific areas.

Local city bodies have banned the passage of cars in downtown areas of urban areas, making them a space only for pedestrians. This is also the pedestrian paradox that prohibits the passage of cars only on certain days.

Decline of public transport
Public transportation was the most seriously affected by the rapid spread of automobiles that was also a global trend. However, the Road Bureau of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism has promoted the development of streetcars on roads that are mass-transportable and environmentally friendly than cars, and the bus lines and bus lines are under review.

Promote import
Imported car sales, which was extremely restricted to develop the Japanese automobile industry, was liberalized in 1965 (1965), but the number of imports turned to a peak at 60,161 in 1979, and decreased to 1983 It decreased to 35,286 in the year.

However, an American car that benefited from the dollar appreciation began to price down from the 1985 model, and in response to this, European cars, which had nothing to do with the direct appreciation of the yen, also made efforts to lower the price. In addition, BMW set up 9.5% auto loan which in June 1984 it cuts the real interest rate 10%, each company followed it, so it became able to purchase at practically cheap price. Along with this, the consumption orientation of luxury goods progressed due to the bubble economy, and funds that gave up purchasing due to the price rise of houses flowed to the car.

In 1980, the production of Japanese cars surpassed American cars to become the best in the world, and the market share in the American market exceeded 20%. With the rise of exports of Japanese cars like this, trade imbalance and non-tariff barriers became a problem from around 1985, and the Japanese government decided to implement ‘Action Program for Market Opening and Import Promotion’ . The Ministry of Transport tried to simplify the certification procedure for the new model vehicle or to promote imports such as the Ministry of Transport staff attending overseas business and reviewing the tests that can not be done without a manufacturer. In addition, the automobile insurance which was disadvantageous to imported cars was revised on July 1, 1989 to the same condition as the domestic car, the excise tax became the consumption tax in April 1989, and the tax substantially reduced, from the 1990 April the large car Measures such as tax reduction were also conducted.

For these reasons, the number of registered imported cars began to increase to 41,982 units in 1984, record highs of 50,172 in 1985 and 88,357 in 1986, followed by 97,750 in 1987, 133,573 in 1988, 1989 It increased steadily to 180,424 units per year.

As vehicles running mainly on the road, there are trucks, buses, passenger cars, special vehicles, and there are other vehicles running outside the street. Besides functional classification, the type is made from various application aspects. For example, on the sale of cars, for example, regulations and taxes. From the viewpoint of such laws and regulations, the types of cars vary from country to country. Because it is the purpose of distinction to be used for subjects who are convenient in each viewpoint, there is no uniform consistency for each distinction, and the classes used for regulation are sold It is not exactly the same as the distinction used by the dealer and the purchaser, and the distinction between the side of manufacturing the vehicle and the side of selling is not exactly the same. Also, if the big categories of vehicles are different, the point of view is different even if you are the same user. As an example, from the viewpoint of selling / purchasing, the capacity and number of occupants that can be loaded are classified into large categories for trucks and buses, whereas passenger cars are distinguished from different viewpoints, ie, body style, displacement, etc. . According to the law, categorization is made from the viewpoint of regulation and tax, and the classification of the displacement is also based on the tax point.

Various classifications are possible, but here it is divided according to size and displacement. Note that this does not apply to vehicles equipped with rotary engines (Taxonomy, exhaust volume = single chamber volume × number of rotors × 1.5 Rotary engine # see also for automobiles).

Minicar (50 cc or less or rated output 0.6 kW or less)
Under the Road Trucking Vehicle Law, it is a bicycle with a prime mover, but an ultra-small vehicle that is treated as a car under the Road Traffic Act.

Light car (660 cc)
It is the smallest size in a typical four-wheeled vehicle in Japan. It is a Japanese proprietary standard, but those sold in Europe are included in the A segment class. Although the engine displacement is small, although it is painful for high-speed driving and long-time driving, handling is very easy, there is a merit that the maintenance costs such as automobile tax etc. are cheap policyatically. From this, it is popular for living mainly in areas where public transportation facilities are bad.

Originally the interior space was narrow because of the size of the car body size, but a model that sold a wide indoor by the revision of the standard appeared, and sales have been increasing. However, the number of occupants is limited to 4 people on the standard.

With the soaring price of crude oil since around 2005, the sales of mini vehicles have further increased and become the largest sales class in Japan.

It is widely used as a commercial vehicle. It is useful for transportation companies in urban areas where there are many opportunities to travel through urban roads whose small outer dimensions are narrow, and it is also active in agricultural fields where passengers often travel through narrow farm roads and forest roads.

1000 cc to 1500 cc class
A class that belongs to a mini car, also called compact car, compact car, litter car. It corresponds to European A segment – B segment. The main unit price is almost the same as that of mini vehicles, although the size is one size larger than mini vehicles (depending on the type of cars, there are things of almost the same size as mini vehicles), but excellent in fuel consumption and handling, engine exhaust volume is large As it became, there was room for high-speed driving. However, in Japan there is a disadvantage that taxes and insurance fees jump to more than four times that of minicars.

Since the 2000s, the quality of compact cars improved, so many people (middle sized cars) transfer to this class (downsizing), Honda Fit and Mazda · Demio, Suzuki · Sorio, Toyota · Aqua and other strategic vehicles of the companies to sharpen To shave.
The largest sales class in Europe.

From 1500 cc to 2000 cc class
In Japan, it is called a popular car and it is a lower class (sub compact car in North America) class. It corresponds to the European C segment. Assuming use in Japan, it has a balance in everyday handling and usability, fuel economy, comfortability, high performance and long-running performance.

In the past as a general family car, Toyota Corolla and other main spindle models of each company were the main battlefield to survive. Small minivans of this class such as Toyota · Scienta and Honda · shuttle are still popular now. However, as the downsizing of Japanese automobiles has progressed in recent years, the mainstream of the market has already shifted to light cars and compact cars, except for the hybrid car Toyota Prius, and minivans are mainly used as family cars , And the audience of this class sedan is aging.

In the past, most of the vehicles had a width of less than 1.7 m, but in recent years there was almost no difference in maintenance costs between small passenger cars and regular passenger cars, and importance was placed on export, so even if less than 2,000 cc is registered as 3 number Vehicles exceeding 1.7 m in width have been released.

2000 cc to 2500 cc class
Class in the middle in Japan (compact car in North America) class. It corresponds to the European D segment.

The mainstream size used for taxis in Japan.

In recent years in Japan, medium-sized minivans belonging to this class as a family car such as Nissan · Serena and Honda · Step Wagon are highly popular.

The largest sales class in North America.
In the past, there were many cars with compact car dimensions called 5 number size, but as mentioned above, the difference in maintenance cost due to the difference between small passenger cars and ordinary passenger cars almost disappeared, so that many passenger car sized in recent years.

2500 to 3000 cc class
In Japan it is a class of upper (middle-class car in North America) class. It corresponds to the European E segment. Because the car body gets bigger, the handling gets worse.
In Japan, the upper limit of general passenger cars owned by individuals. Many luxury-oriented models such as large-sized minivans such as Toyota Alphard, large sedans such as Toyota Crown, and large SUV such as Toyota and Land Cruiser Prado are many.

3000 cc or more
Class belonging to high end in Japan. It corresponds to F segment of Europe. Luxury-oriented cars with plenty of latest technology and equipment, high-performance sports cars, luxury-oriented SUVs, etc. Therefore, it can not be said that fuel economy is good, it also costs maintenance, including taxes and insurance.
In addition to being owned by wealthy people, most are positioned as status symbols of executive cars such as executive cars, corporate cars such as high-ranking hire, entertainment and athletes and entrepreneurs. There are many luxury cars that sit on the back seat and vehicles with very high running performance and quiet performance. Especially for athletes many people ride in large luxury cars that are said to be excellent in safety from the concept of “body is capital”. Luxury car brands such as Mercedes-Benz, Lexus, BMW and Porsche are the main battlefields targeting the wealthy targets by senior car models.

Also in recent years there is a tendency for engines for passenger cars of just 3000 cc to become fewer, and there are also cases in which cars that had been in the 2500 to 3000 cc class have become “2500 to 3500 cc class” in some cases. Marks with long history include Mark II → Mark X, Crown, Skyline, Fairlady Z and others.

Vehicles equipped with engines with much larger displacement than passenger cars are not uncommon for cargo vehicles (1/4 number) because the calculation method of vehicle weight, load weight, taxable amount differs.

Certificate concerning cars
In Japan, the qualifications for cars are as follows.

Driver’s license
International driver’s license
Designated driving school instructor
Parking observer
Operation manager
Motor sports license
Super license

Car mechanic
Automobile inspector
Vehicle maintenance chief

Maintenance manager
Vocational training instructor’s license
Vocational training instructor (car body maintenance course)
Vocational training instructor (car department)
Vocational training instructor (car manufacturing department)
Vocational training instructor (Department of Internal Combustion Engine)

Internal Combustion Engine Assembly Skill