An automaton is a self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to automatically follow a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructions. Some automata, such as bellstrikers in mechanical clocks, are designed to give the illusion to the casual observer that they are operating under their own power.
The word “automaton” is the latinization of the Greek αὐτόματον, automaton, (neuter) “acting of one’s own will”. This word was first used by Homer to describe automatic door opening, or automatic movement of wheeled tripods. It is more often used to describe non-electronic moving machines, especially those that have been made to resemble human or animal actions, such as the jacks on old public striking clocks, or the cuckoo and any other animated figures on a cuckoo clock.
There are many examples of automata in Greek mythology: Hephaestus created automata for his workshop; Talos was an artificial man of bronze; Daedalus used quicksilver to install voice in his moving statues; King Alkinous of the Phaiakians employed gold and silver watchdogs.
The automata in the Hellenistic world were intended as tools, toys, religious idols, or prototypes for demonstrating basic scientific principles. Numerous water powered automata were built by Ktesibios, a Greek inventor and the first head of the Great Library of Alexandria, for example he “used water to sound a whistle and make a model owl move. He had invented the world’s first “cuckoo” clock”. This tradition continued in Alexandria with inventors such as the Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria (sometimes known as Heron), whose writings on hydraulics, pneumatics, and mechanics described siphons, a fire engine, a water organ, the aeolipile, and a programmable cart.
Complex mechanical devices are known to have existed in Hellenistic Greece, though the only surviving example is the Antikythera mechanism, the earliest known analog computer. It is thought to have come originally from Rhodes, where there was apparently a tradition of mechanical engineering; the island was renowned for its automata; to quote Pindar’s seventh Olympic Ode:
The animated figures stand
Adorning every public street
And seem to breathe in stone, or
move their marble feet.
However, the information gleaned from recent scans of the fragments indicate that it may have come from the colonies of Corinth in Sicily and implies a connection with Archimedes.
According to Jewish legend, Solomon used his wisdom to design a throne with mechanical animals which hailed him as king when he ascended it; upon sitting down an eagle would place a crown upon his head, and a dove would bring him a Torah scroll. It’s also said that when King Solomon stepped upon the throne, a mechanism was set in motion. As soon as he stepped upon the first step, a golden ox and a golden lion each stretched out one foot to support him and help him rise to the next step. On each side, the animals helped the King up until he was comfortably seated upon the throne.
In ancient China, a curious account of automata is found in the Lie Zi text, written in the 3rd century BC. Within it there is a description of a much earlier encounter between King Mu of Zhou (1023-957 BC) and a mechanical engineer known as Yan Shi, an ‘artificer’. The latter proudly presented the king with a life-size, human-shaped figure of his mechanical handiwork:
The king stared at the figure in astonishment. It walked with rapid strides, moving its head up and down, so that anyone would have taken it for a live human being. The artificer touched its chin, and it began singing, perfectly in tune. He touched its hand, and it began posturing, keeping perfect time…As the performance was drawing to an end, the robot winked its eye and made advances to the ladies in attendance, whereupon the king became incensed and would have had Yen Shih [Yan Shi] executed on the spot had not the latter, in mortal fear, instantly taken the robot to pieces to let him see what it really was. And, indeed, it turned out to be only a construction of leather, wood, glue and lacquer, variously coloured white, black, red and blue. Examining it closely, the king found all the internal organs complete—liver, gall, heart, lungs, spleen, kidneys, stomach and intestines; and over these again, muscles, bones and limbs with their joints, skin, teeth and hair, all of them artificial…The king tried the effect of taking away the heart, and found that the mouth could no longer speak; he took away the liver and the eyes could no longer see; he took away the kidneys and the legs lost their power of locomotion. The king was delighted.
Other notable examples of automata include Archytas’s dove, mentioned by Aulus Gellius. Similar Chinese accounts of flying automata are written of the 5th century BC Mohist philosopher Mozi and his contemporary Lu Ban, who made artificial wooden birds (ma yuan) that could successfully fly according to the Han Fei Zi and other texts.
The manufacturing tradition of automata continued in the Greek world well into the Middle Ages. On his visit to Constantinople in 949 ambassador Liutprand of Cremona described automata in the emperor Theophilos’ palace, including
“lions, made either of bronze or wood covered with gold, which struck the ground with their tails and roared with open mouth and quivering tongue,” “a tree of gilded bronze, its branches filled with birds, likewise made of bronze gilded over, and these emitted cries appropriate to their species” and “the emperor’s throne” itself, which “was made in such a cunning manner that at one moment it was down on the ground, while at another it rose higher and was to be seen up in the air.”
Similar automata in the throne room (singing birds, roaring and moving lions) were described by Luitprand’s contemporary Constantine Porphyrogenitus, who later became emperor, in his book Περὶ τῆς Βασιλείου Τάξεως.
In the mid-8th century, the first wind powered automata were built: “statues that turned with the wind over the domes of the four gates and the palace complex of the Round City of Baghdad”. The “public spectacle of wind-powered statues had its private counterpart in the ‘Abbasid palaces where automata of various types were predominantly displayed.” Also in the 8th century, the Muslim alchemist, Jābir ibn Hayyān (Geber), included recipes for constructing artificial snakes, scorpions, and humans that would be subject to their creator’s control in his coded Book of Stones. In 827, Caliph Al-Ma’mun had a silver and golden tree in his palace in Baghdad, which had the features of an automatic machine. There were metal birds that sang automatically on the swinging branches of this tree built by Muslim inventors and engineers.[page needed] The Abbasid Caliph Al-Muqtadir also had a golden tree in his palace in Baghdad in 915, with birds on it flapping their wings and singing. In the 9th century, the Banū Mūsā brothers invented a programmable automatic flute player and which they described in their Book of Ingenious Devices.
Al-Jazari described complex programmable humanoid automata amongst other machines he designed and constructed in the Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206. His automaton was a boat with four automatic musicians that floated on a lake to entertain guests at royal drinking parties. His mechanism had a programmable drum machine with pegs (cams) that bump into little levers that operate the percussion. The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and drum patterns if the pegs were moved around. According to Charles B. Fowler, the automata were a “robot band” which performed “more than fifty facial and body actions during each musical selection.”
Al-Jazari constructed a hand washing automaton first employing the flush mechanism now used in modern toilets. It features a female automaton standing by a basin filled with water. When the user pulls the lever, the water drains and the automaton refills the basin. His “peacock fountain” was another more sophisticated hand washing device featuring humanoid automata as servants who offer soap and towels. Mark E. Rosheim describes it as follows: “Pulling a plug on the peacock’s tail releases water out of the beak; as the dirty water from the basin fills the hollow base a float rises and actuates a linkage which makes a servant figure appear from behind a door under the peacock and offer soap. When more water is used, a second float at a higher level trips and causes the appearance of a second servant figure — with a towel!” Al-Jazari thus appears to have been the first inventor to display an interest in creating human-like machines for practical purposes such as manipulating the environment for human comfort.
Samarangana Sutradhara, a Sanskrit treatise by Bhoja (11th century), includes a chapter about the construction of mechanical contrivances (automata), including mechanical bees and birds, fountains shaped like humans and animals, and male and female dolls that refilled oil lamps, danced, played instruments, and re-enacted scenes from Hindu mythology.
Villard de Honnecourt, in his 1230s sketchbook, show plans for animal automata and an angel that perpetually turns to face the sun. At the end of the thirteenth century, Robert II, Count of Artois built a pleasure garden at his castle at Hesdin that incorporated several automata as entertainment in the walled park. The work was conducted by local workmen and overseen by the Italian knight Renaud Coignet. It included monkey marionettes, a sundial supported by lions and “wild men”, mechanized birds, mechanized fountains and a bellows-operated organ. The park was famed for its automata well into the fifteenth century before it was destroyed by English soldiers in the sixteenth.
The Chinese author Xiao Xun wrote that when the Ming Dynasty founder Hongwu (r. 1368–1398) was destroying the palaces of Khanbaliq belonging to the previous Yuan Dynasty, there were—among many other mechanical devices—automata found that were in the shape of tigers.
Renaissance and early modern
The Renaissance witnessed a considerable revival of interest in automata. Hero’s treatises were edited and translated into Latin and Italian. Giovanni Fontana created mechanical devils and rocket-propelled animal automata. Numerous clockwork automata were manufactured in the 16th century, principally by the goldsmiths of the Free Imperial Cities of central Europe. These wondrous devices found a home in the cabinet of curiosities or Wunderkammern of the princely courts of Europe. Hydraulic and pneumatic automata, similar to those described by Hero, were created for garden grottoes.
Leonardo da Vinci sketched a more complex automaton around the year 1495. The design of Leonardo’s robot was not rediscovered until the 1950s. The robot could, if built successfully, move its arms, twist its head, and sit up.
The Smithsonian Institution has in its collection a clockwork monk, about 15 in (380 mm) high, possibly dating as early as 1560. The monk is driven by a key-wound spring and walks the path of a square, striking his chest with his right arm, while raising and lowering a small wooden cross and rosary in his left hand, turning and nodding his head, rolling his eyes, and mouthing silent obsequies. From time to time, he brings the cross to his lips and kisses it. It is believed that the monk was manufactured by Juanelo Turriano, mechanician to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
A new attitude towards automata is to be found in Descartes when he suggested that the bodies of animals are nothing more than complex machines – the bones, muscles and organs could be replaced with cogs, pistons and cams. Thus mechanism became the standard to which Nature and the organism was compared. France in the 17th century was the birthplace of those ingenious mechanical toys that were to become prototypes for the engines of the Industrial Revolution. Thus, in 1649, when Louis XIV was still a child, an artisan named Camus designed for him a miniature coach, and horses complete with footmen, page and a lady within the coach; all these figures exhibited a perfect movement. According to P. Labat, General de Gennes constructed, in 1688, in addition to machines for gunnery and navigation, a peacock that walked and ate. Athanasius Kircher produced many automata to create Jesuit shows, including a statue which spoke and listened via a speaking tube.
The world’s first successfully-built biomechanical automaton is considered to be The Flute Player, invented by the French engineer Jacques de Vaucanson in 1737. He also constructed the Digesting Duck, a mechanical duck that gave the false illusion of eating and defecating, seeming to endorse Cartesian ideas that animals are no more than machines of flesh.
In 1769, a chess-playing machine called the Turk, created by Wolfgang von Kempelen, made the rounds of the courts of Europe purporting to be an automaton. The Turk was operated from inside by a hidden human director, and was not a true automaton.
Other 18th century automaton makers include the prolific Swiss Pierre Jaquet-Droz (see Jaquet-Droz automata) and his contemporary Henri Maillardet. Maillardet, a Swiss mechanic, created an automaton capable of drawing four pictures and writing three poems. Maillardet’s Automaton is now part of the collections at the Franklin Institute Science Museum in Philadelphia. Belgian-born John Joseph Merlin created the mechanism of the Silver Swan automaton, now at Bowes Museum. A musical elephant made by the French clockmaker Hubert Martinet in 1774 is one of the highlights of Waddesdon Manor. Tipu’s Tiger is another late-18th century example of automata, made for Tipu Sultan, featuring a European soldier being mauled by a tiger.
According to philosopher Michel Foucault, Frederick the Great, king of Prussia from 1740 to 1786, was “obsessed” with automata. According to Manuel de Landa, “he put together his armies as a well-oiled clockwork mechanism whose components were robot-like warriors”.
Japan adopted automata during the Edo period (1603–1867); they were known as karakuri ningyō.
Automata, particularly watches and clocks, were popular in China during the 18th and 19th centuries, and items were produced for the Chinese market. Strong interest by Chinese collectors in the 21st century brought many interesting items to market where they have had dramatic realizations.
The famous magician Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin (1805–1871) was known for creating automata for his stage shows.
In 1840, Italian inventor Innocenzo Manzetti constructed a flute-playing automaton, in the shape of a man, life-size, seated on a chair. Hidden inside the chair were levers, connecting rods and compressed air tubes, which made the automaton’s lips and fingers move on the flute according to a program recorded on a cylinder similar to those used in player pianos. The automaton was powered by clockwork and could perform 12 different arias. As part of the performance it would rise from the chair, bow its head, and roll its eyes.
The period 1860 to 1910 is known as “The Golden Age of Automata”. During this period many small family based companies of Automata makers thrived in Paris. From their workshops they exported thousands of clockwork automata and mechanical singing birds around the world. It is these French automata that are collected today, although now rare and expensive they attract collectors worldwide. The main French makers were Bontems, Lambert, Phalibois, Renou, Roullet & Decamps, Theroude and Vichy.
Contemporary automata continue this tradition with an emphasis on art, rather than technological sophistication. Contemporary automata are represented by the works of Cabaret Mechanical Theatre in the United Kingdom, Dug North and Chomick+Meder, Thomas Kuntz, Arthur Ganson, Joe Jones in the United States, Le Défenseur du Temps by French artist Jacques Monestier, and François Junod in Switzerland.
Some mechanized toys developed during the 18th and 19th centuries were automata made with paper. Despite the relative simplicity of the material, paper automata require a high degree of technical ingenuity.
One of the most advanced automata proposed to date is NASA’s Automaton Rover for Extreme Environments (AREE), a wind-powered automaton to be used for exploring Venus. Unlike other modern automata, AREE is an automaton instead of a robot for practical reasons — Venus’s harsh conditions, particularly its surface temperature of 462 °C (864 °F), make operating electronics there impossible.
The potential educational value of mechanical toys in teaching transversal skills has been recognised by the European Union education project Clockwork objects, enhanced learning: Automata Toys Construction (CLOHE).
Heads and talking machines
Within the automatons there is a group that has had a great diffusion throughout history, the talking heads, beings that were believed between the mechanics and magic that spoke, advised their owners or predicted the future. The legend and the myth have influenced much in this type of mechanisms being the first versions in old Arab stories. One of the most famous examples is the head shaped like a man by Roger Bacon (1214-1294), made of brass and that could answer questions about the future, the one of Alberto Magno with the shape of a woman, the one of Valentín Merbitz that they said who spoke several languages, others say that thanks to a ventriloquist, the talking head of Pope Sylvester IIwho answered randomly “yes” or “no” to the questions asked, or the figure of the saint who spoke of Athanasius Kircher, in addition to his book “Misurgia Universalis” where he describes in detail the creation of figures that can move the eyes, lips and tongue.
In any case, most of them got the “voice” through various systems. The first with a documentary basis in achieving this was Kratzenstein, who with a system of organ pipes could reproduce the vowels. Wolfrang von Kempelen later explained in one of his works how to make and manipulate one of these machines so that he could pronounce some short phrases through a kind of bellows through which the air passed and the sounds were modulated. Or those created by the Abbe Mical, life-size and which, displayed in pairs, answered each other. Already in the nineteenth century Joseph Faber devised the most perfect version of these machines, named Euphonia, which was used as the organ of a church and could range from reciting the alphabet to answering questions, whispering or laughing.
An automaton clock or automata clock is a type of striking clock featuring automatons. Clocks like these were built from the 1st century BC through to Victorian times in Europe. A Cuckoo clock is a simple form of this type of clock.
The first known mention is of those created by the Roman engineer Vitruvius, describing early alarm clocks working with gongs or trumpets. Later automatons usually perform on the hour, half-hour or quarter-hour, usually to strike bells. Common figures in older clocks include Death (as a reference to human mortality), Old Father Time, saints and angels. In the Regency and Victorian eras, common figures also included royalty, famous composers or industrialists.
More recently constructed automaton clocks are widespread in Japan, where they are known as karakuri-dokei. Notable examples of such clocks include the Nittele Ōdokei, designed by Hayao Miyazaki to be affixed on the Nippon Television headquarters in Tokyo, touted to be the largest animated clock in the world. In the United Kingdom, Kit Williams produced a series of large automaton clocks for a handful of British shopping centres, featuring frogs, ducks and fish.
Examples of automaton clocks include Chariot clock and Cuckoo Clocks. The Cuckooland Museum exhibits autonomous clocks.
Wolfgang von Kempelen inventor, as has been pointed out above, of one of the first talking machines was also the creator of one of the most famous automata in history, which, in turn, was one of the biggest frauds of his time but, Despite this, he promoted the creation of automatons chess players until almost our days. We talk about El Turco.
Built in 1769, “El Turco” was formed by a table where a human-shaped mannequin dressed in Arab clothes was placed. A door in the front part opened and showed the supposed mechanism of operation of the automaton. This player was one of the greatest attractions of the time because, they said, he was invincible. He traveled throughout Europe even after the death of its creator, passing into the hands of Johan Maezel, even defeating Napoleon Bonaparte himself during the campaign of the Battle of Wagram. After traveling through the United States, he lands in Cubawhere William Schlumberger dies, Maezel’s assistant, and possibly in charge of entering the automaton to play the games, since after this death “The Turk” stopped showing until destroyed in 1845 in the great fire in Philadelphia. Later it was said that, throughout its history, the automaton had had several operators that moved the mechanism thanks to a secondary chessboard. Each piece of the main board contained a magnet, so the operator could know which piece had been moved and where. The operator made his movement by means of a mechanism that could fit into the secondary board, indicating to the manikin where to move.
The fame of this automaton caused that many other replicas were created with the same trick of operation, some of them in the 19th century as is the case of “Ajeeb” presented by Charles Hooper in 1868 or “Mephisto” born in 1876 getting to win a chess tournament in London without anyone noticing the artifice.
However, there was an automaton whose operation was completely real. Its creation is due to the Spanish Leonardo Torres Quevedo, engineer and mathematician, inventor of ” The Chess Player ” presented at the Paris fair of 1914. It worked using electromagnets under the board, playing automatically until the end with a king and a tower against a King from any position without any human intervention.
Thus, we can consider these automata, both false and real, as pioneers of modern computer chess games and computers like Deep Blue that maintain the same spirit and objectives as their predecessors: getting a machine to beat the mind human
Animatronics and mechatronics
Reproducing the appearance of life requires artistic qualities, as if to reproduce the inanimate (statues…) and techniques (movement) by mechanical automata. This requires some know-how and skills in multiple areas.
Automaton, from the Latin automatia and this from the Greek αὐτόματος automatons, ‘spontaneous’ or ‘with its own movement’. According to the RAE, “a machine that imitates the figure and movements of an animate being”, is a technological equivalent today; it would be the autonomous robots. If the robot is anthropomorphic, it is known as an android.
Prometheus, according to Greek mythology, creator of the human being.
Pygmalion, being from Greek mythology who sculpted the statue of a young girl whom she called Galatea, so beautiful that he fell in love with her, wishing she had life.
Hephaestus is mythological that created mechanical women built in gold that helped him in his work of blacksmithing.
The Argonauts, created a robot dog to guard his ship.
The Talos Giant, made of bronze.
The Golem, according to Jewish folklore, was created from clay by Rabbi Löw by introducing into the mouth the shem, a magical inscription in Hebrew that contained the name of Yahweh.
In the Satiricón de Petronio a slave with an articulated silver skeleton is described that serves dishes and drinks.
In The Sandman E. TA Hoffmann talks about Nataniel and his love for the Olympia automaton. His end will be suicide to discover the true nature of his beloved. This same author will speak in the short story “Los Automómatas” of “El Turco Parlante”, inspired by the false automaton of Von Kempelen.
Frankenstein, written by Mary Shelley in 1818 and tells the story of Dr. Frankenstein, obsessed with creating a living being from different parts of the body of dissected corpses.
Chess player Maezel of Edgar Allan Poe where he tries to decipher the true functioning of the Turkish.
Maestro Zacarías, by Jules Verne tells the story of a watchmaker who transfers his soul to his automatons.
The nightingale, by Hans Christian Andersen, where a mechanical bird appears that imitates the sound of the nightingale.
Eva Futura de Villiers de L’Isle Adam describes Hadaly, the ideal artificial woman, but at the same time criticizes the excesses of the technological inventions represented by Edison.
The Adventures of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi with the story of Gepeto and his wooden puppet that comes alive thanks to the intervention of a fairy godmother.
The Universal Robots of Rossum, written in 1920 by the Czech Karel Čapek and first work where the modern term “robot” is used.
In the cinema
Le Joueur d’echecs (The Chess Player) (1927) directed by Raymond Bernard, anti-war film based on the novel by Henri Dupuy-Mazuel, which was inspired by the story of the automaton chess player “The Turk”, created by the Hungarian Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen.
Metropolis (1927) directed by Fritz Lang, where the scientist Rotwang CA creates an anthropomorphic robot shaped like a woman (or gynoid).
The Wizard of Oz (1939) directed by Victor Fleming, where the character appears tin man, who travels to Oz in search of a heart.
2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) directed by Stanley Kubrick, in which the character HAL 9000 appears, a computer with artificial intelligence that eventually goes mad, trying to kill the crew of the Discovery 1 ship.
Westworld (1973) directed by Michael Crichton and starring Yul Brynner, where the robots of a theme park that simulated the ancient American West rebel against visitors.
The perfect women (1975 and remake in 2004). In the town of Stepford, men have replaced their women with automatons that obey all their orders.
Blade Runner (1982) directed by Ridley Scott, where the “Replicantes” appear, identical to human beings but with a limited life expectancy, used as workers.
The Terminator (1984) directed by James Cameron. In the future, machines have enslaved man and sent the past to a human-like automaton to eliminate the future mother who will be the leader of the rebellion against machines.
Edward Scissorhands (1990) directed by Tim Burton, tells the story of Edward, an automaton with sharp blades by hands who was incomplete when dying prematurely his creator.
Toy Story (1995), directed by John Lasseter, recovers the myth that inanimate beings, like toys, have a life of their own in the absence of their owners.
Artificial Intelligence (2001) by Steven Spielberg, tells the story of David, a unique robot capable of loving.
The Man Bicentennial (1999) directed by Chris Columbus, is a film that tells the story of an automaton capable of thinking and feeling.
Hugo (film) (2011) Film directed by Martin Scorsese based on the book “The Invention of Hugo Cabret” where the great filmmaker Georges Méliès creates an automaton through which the plot of this story is unleashed
Automata Museum of La Rochelle, France
Another famous automaton museum (Museu d’Autòmats) is located in the Tibidabo Amusement Park, in Barcelona.
There is another in Verdú near Tárrega, it is the Museum of Toys and Automata, Lleida, Catalonia.
Source from Wikipedia