The architecture of Quebec, was characterized in the beginning by the settlers of the rural areas along the St. Lawrence who largely came from Normandy. The houses they built echoed their roots. The surroundings forced enough differences that a unique style developed, and the house of the New France farmer remains a symbol of French-Canadian nationalism. These were rectangular structures of one storey, but with an extremely tall and steep roof, sometimes almost twice as tall as the house below. This roof design perhaps developed to prevent the accumulation of snow. The houses were usually built of wood, though the surviving ones are almost all built of stone. Landmarks in the rural areas were the churches and the mansion of the seigneurs. The seigneurs built much larger homes for themselves, but rarely were the manors ornate. Each parish had its church, often smaller copies of major churches in Quebec City or Montreal. A unique style of French-Canadian church thus developed.
Arrival of the Europeans
The first Europeans to inhabit what would become Canada were the French settlers of New France and Acadia. The initial settlements at Port Royal and Quebec City were most concerned with defence, against both First Nations and the English. For most of the early history of Quebec city it was dominated by the large fortress and outer walls. The city was divided into two sections. The Upper Town was home to the fortress, Intendant’s house, and churches, these structures were built of stone in imitation of the Baroque architecture then popular in France. The Lower Town consisted of densely packed structures on narrow streets, and was the commercial centre and home to the workers.
Famous for its religious heritage, Quebec has some of the most beautiful Catholic churches of North America. There are no less than 122 religious buildings named historic monuments by the Government of Quebec.
Founded as a Roman Catholic French colony and nicknamed “the city of a hundred spires”, Montréal is renowned for its churches.
The city has four Roman Catholic basilicas: the Marie-Reine-du-Monde Cathedral, the Notre-Dame Basilica, St. Patrick Basilica, the Saint Joseph’s Oratory. The Saint Joseph’s oratory is the largest church in Canada, with the largest dome of its kind in the world after that of Saint Peter’s Basilica in Rome. Other churches known, include the Notre-Dame-de-Bon-Secours Chapel, which is sometimes called “The sailors Church”.
After the British victory in the seven years war, Protestant immigrants came to Montreal from England, Scotland, Ireland and the United States. Different Protestant churches will be built to meet growing community. The two most important of them are of Saint James United Church and the Anglican Church Christ Church Cathedral, which was suspended over a well dug during the construction of the shopping centre Promenades Cathedrale, part of the Montreal underground city.
Hundreds of family houses were built during the period of New France. These particular style houses date back to the 17th and 18th centuries especially in Quebec City, Île d’Orléans, and along the countryside. They were specially built to withstand cold weather and look very much like the Normandy houses.
The Canadiens built several villages, especially in Wisconsin, Michigan, and the Pays des Illinois.
Sainte-Geneviève is the oldest permanent village in Missouri. It was founded towards the end of the 1730s by Canadiens about three kilometres to the South of its current location on the banks of the Mississippi (a mural at the State Capitol of Missouri indicates its founding in 1735). This is one of the first cities located west of the Mississippi River and North of New Orleans in Louisiana, which would be transferred during its sale from Napoleon to the United States.
The oldest buildings of Sainte-Geneviève were therefore all built during the Spanish occupation although it is typical French colonial buildings. The most representative buildings of this period rely on poles of wood planted vertically in the ground while the traditional colonial American huts were consisted of assembled horizontally logs.
One of the most characteristic traditional houses of the city are the “poles in the earth” in which the walls made of wooden planks do not support the floor. The latter relies on stone pillars. The walls of these types of houses, partly buried in the ground, are particularly susceptible to flooding, termites and rot. Three of the five houses of this type still exist in the United States are located in Sainte-Geneviève. The other two are located in Pascagoula (Mississippi) and Natchitoches parish. Most of the old buildings of the city are “poles in the earth” type in which the wooden structure is placed on raised brick foundation stones.
The oldest House in the city is the “Bolduc House” which was built in 1770 on the original site of the city and was then moved and enlarged in 1785.
A festival takes place every year during the second weekend in August to celebrate their cultural heritage. The ferry that crosses the Mississippi River is nicknamed “”the French Connection”” because of its link to other sites of the region’s francophone past.
Famous for its religious heritage, Quebec has some of the most beautiful Catholic churches in North America. There are no fewer than 122 religious buildings classified as historic monuments by the Government of Quebec.
Originally founded as a Roman Catholic French colony and nicknamed the “city of a hundred steeples”, Montreal is famous for its churches.
The city has four Roman Catholic basilicas: Mary Cathedral, Queen of the World, Notre-Dame Basilica, St. Patrick’s Basilica, St. Joseph’s Oratory of Mount Royal. Saint Joseph’s Oratory is the largest church in Canada, with the largest dome of its kind in the world after that of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. Other well-known churches include the Notre-Dame-de-Bon-Secours Chapel, which is sometimes called the Seafarers’ Church.
After the British victory in the Seven Years’ War, Protestant immigrants came to Montreal from England, Scotland, Ireland and the United States. Various Protestant churches will be built to meet the growing community. The two most important of these are St. James United Church and the Anglican Church Christ Church Cathedral in Montreal, which was suspended over a well dug during the construction of the Promenades de la Cathédrale shopping center. part of the underground city of Montreal.
Quebec also has no shortage of non-religious buildings. There are several hundred family houses built during the New France era. These houses have a particular style dating from the seventeenth and eighteenth century (especially in the city of Quebec and its countryside). They were especially built to withstand the cold weather and are very similar to Norman houses.
These houses with Norman character had roofs that fall back to the ends like Norman thatched cottages of yesteryear. Even today in the Quebec countryside, we see his houses. The Lamontagne house in Rimouski has half – timberings as seen in Normandy.
Radiance of Quebec Architecture
Quebecers founded several villages, mostly in Wisconsin, Michigan, and the Illinois Country.
St. Genevieve is the oldest permanent village in Missouri. It was founded in the late 1730s by Canadians about three kilometers south of its current location on the banks of the Mississippi River (a mural of the Missouri State Capitol indicates its founding in 1735). It is one of the first cities located west of the Mississippi River and north of New Orleans territory to be sold during the Louisiana sale.
The oldest buildings of Sainte-Geneviève were therefore all built during the Spanish occupation although they are typical buildings of the French colonial era. The most representative buildings of this period are based on wooden posts planted vertically in the ground whereas the huts of traditional American colonists consist of logs assembled horizontally.
One of the most characteristic types of traditional houses in the city are the ” earthen posts ” in which walls made of planks of wood do not support the floor. The latter is supported by stone pillars. The walls of this type of house, partly buried in the ground, are particularly sensitive to floods, termites and decay. Three of the five houses of this type still existing in the United States are at Sainte-Geneviève. The other two are in Pascagoula (Mississippi) and in the Natchitoches parish. Most of the old buildings in the city are of the “post on hearth” type, in which the wooden structure is placed on raised stones of the brick foundations. The oldest house in town is the Bolduc House which was built in 1770 on the original site of the city and was later moved and enlarged in 1785.
A festival, ” Jour de Fete “, takes place every year during the second weekend of August to celebrate its cultural heritage. The ferry crossing the Mississippi is nicknamed ” the French Connection ” because of its link to other sites witnesses of the francophone past of the region.
Several architects stood out outside the province. One of Quebec’s greatest achievements in the Maritime Provinces is St. Peter’s Church in Cheticamp, Nova Scotia, designed by David Ouelette in 1893.
Montréal’s skyscraper construction oscillated between periods of intense activity and prolonged lulls. A two-year period from 1962 to 1964 saw the completion of four of the ten largest buildings in Montreal: the Bourse Tower, Place Ville-Marie (IM Pei), the Bank of Commerce Building and the Telus Tower. The tallest buildings, the 1000 De La Gauchetière (51 floors) and the 1250 René-Lévesque (47 floors), were completed in 1992.
Montreal imposes height limits on skyscrapers so that they do not exceed the height of Mount Royal. The city prohibits any building from reaching an altitude above 223 meters above sea level. Some land in the city center is allowed to exceed 120 meters in height. The limit is currently reached by 1000 La Gauchetière and 1250 René-Lévesque Boulevard, the latter is lower, but built on a higher ground. The only way to reach more than 1000 of La Gauchetière, while respecting this limit would be to build on the lower part of the city center near Tour de la Bourse, the maximum height would be about 210 meters.
Some regions of Quebec are of Acadian culture, such as the Îles de la Madeleine. They were colonized in successive waves, mainly by Acadians between 1755 and 1792. As in other refugee settlements, the first houses are precarious and hastily built with the idea of replacing them later with more comfortable houses, except that they have served longer than expected and the houses have retained their character. rustic for a century. The first houses are built on pieces of round wood, later replaced by planks, caulked with moss and clay ( clay ). The houses have dovetailed corners, but some, called corner houses, have planks joined with wooden pegs. Later, the houses are built of split planks in two and installed vertically. These are interlaced, that is to say that a groove is made with a bouvet along the length of both sides of the plank and that a slat is installed in one of the grooves, thus joining the planks. The houses are generally square and are on average six meters side, but not more than ten meters. On the other hand, we often add a shed, a room built on the model of the house, but smaller. The shed is used as kitchen, dining room and living room. A ladder gives access to the attic where the seeds and tackle are stored. A flat-roofed drum is often built at the entrance of the shed, serving both as a shed and as protection against winter wind.
Source From Wikipedia