The architecture of Gothenburg has been recorded throughout its history. The city of Gothenburg is relatively young, which characterized its architecture. Due to fires, few buildings are found from older times. During the 19th and 20th centuries, the urban area has expanded and densified, which changed the architecture of the archipelago and resulted in, among other things, a ” stone city ” with a variety of townhouses and villas around.
Gothenburg has a relatively young settlement. Fires have devastated the city in various rounds, and the city’s early (1600s) buildings currently only houses the Kronhuset and the residence. After the last big fire in 1813, mainly stone-built houses were built in the Vallgraven, and the neighborhoods were of moderate height, which still reflects in the city center of Gothenburg. Another effect of these fires and the laws that circumvented the construction in Gothenburg are the typical landshövdinge houses, which are mostly located in the western parts of Gothenburg, and in Bagaregården, Kålltorp, Gamlestaden, Lundbyand at Lindholmen.
During the 1960s and 1970s, several major demolition and newbuilding projects were carried out in Gothenburg, which the city’s politicians called “Europe’s largest renovation project”. As a consequence, many neighborhoods – such as Masthugget, Landala, Annedal and Haga – became completely or partly changed.
1800-1850 – The ancient fortifications are being eroded and the city is expanded in the fortification area.
1850-1910 – Industrialism expansion: New industries are located around Göta River and along the rivers, mostly outside the city limits. Landshövdingehusen puts its mark on the workplace parts.
1910-1930 – Majorna, Lundby and Örgryte are incorporated. Albert Lilienberg puts his mark on the construction business.
1930-1945 – Functionalism breaks through and becomes the symbol of a new era.
1945-1960 – The public home is established and after the Second World War, it is invested in expanded housing construction. Housing and neighborhoods receive a high housing standard.
1960-1975 – Large-scale urban construction. Housing construction was industrialized and invested in traffic systems and total renovation of old towns.
1975-1990 – After the expansion phase, interest in cultural history, urban environmental issues and a circular adaptation grew. Extensive office building in the 1980s.
1600s and 1700s
Through the government reform in 1634, many of the new towns became resident cities with the seat of governors. The cities’ privileges were regulated, and some became so-called staple cities and were allowed to conduct foreign trade. The trade was conducted east of Stockholm and west of Gothenburg. Gothenburg was one of the few newly established cities that had stacking rights right from the start. Göteborg received urban privileges in 1621 and became the most successful of all newly established cities. The city was planned for Dutch models with a grid plan; a system of inner harbor channels and an surroundingfortification wreath.
Skansen Lejonet is located on Gullberget at Gullbergsvass. It is one of two old defense chances built in the late 1700’s by Erik Dahlbergh, the other is the Skansen Kronan founded two weeks before the “Lion”. In Erik Dahlbergh’s book Suecia antiqua et hodierna from 1690-1710 there is a engraving of Gothenburg, where you see the newly created scans in the foreground. The Kronhuset was built in the years 1643-1655 with Dutch character, and is Gothenburg’s oldest profana non-residential building.
Gothenburg Town Hall was completed in 1672 and was designed by Nicodemus Tessin, ie. The house was built in Dutch brick. The house was considered too small and after investigations, a contest was announced in 1912, where the first prize went to Gunnar Asplund’s proposal “Andante”. Following further discussions and doubts, the functionalist addition was initiated in autumn 1936. It is sometimes referred to as the Asplundian extension, and is internally characterized by the bright council hall with its glass wall facing the town hall.
Fatthus and Barnhuset at Stampen are examples of early social institutions.
Gothenburg City Hall
The governor’s seat in Gothenburg
The city center in Gothenburg is considered to have a high cultural historical value, and is therefore classified as being of national interest under the Natural Resources Act. In the area of the Vallgraven there are also many well-preserved examples of different times of architecture, where yellow bricks represent an important characteristic. The green area outside Vallgraven testifies to the major role parks and other plantations had in the 19th century urban planning. Palmhuset and Stora Teatern are two important public buildings from the 19th century with a dominant position in the park environment along the Vallgraven.
Sweden’s first urban plan competition concerned the areas outside the Gothenburg mound, the current districts Gullbergsvass, Heden, Lorensberg, Vasastaden and Haga. Based on the result, a city plan was established, established in 1866, where the main axis was formed by the King’s Gate. Fire disasters were still the trigger for extensive urban planning, such as Sundsvallsbranden and Stadsbranden in Umeå, both in 1888. The Vasastaden in Gothenburg is the original Tomtehusetfrom 1890 by Hans Hedlund, one of Sweden’s leading art nouveau architects. Hedlund also created Gothenburg Real Estate Works 1887, Saluhallen at Kungstorget 1889, Gothenburg City Library 1900 and the American Christmas 1912.
Louis Enders designed the shop Arkaden at Brunnsparken in 1899 (torn 1972) and was behind the Hertzia shop 1901 at Packhusplatsen 2. Sometimes he used bold oriental elements on his houses, for example the witch reunion at the New Time house at Järntorget. Later buildings in Gothenburg are characterized by castle-like toes and towers like decorations influenced by Art Nouveau style. An example of northern european brothelogy (neo-Gothic) is Oscar Fredrik’s church from 1893 by Helgo Zetterwall.
Kungsportsavenyn 1 (1882)
House at Södra Road by Hjalmar Cornilsen (1898)
In 1901, Per Olof Hallman and Fredrik Sundbärg won the 1st prize for the plan for the new district of Johanneberg in Gothenburg. For the implementation, Albert Lilienberg, Gothenburg’s first city engineer (1907-1927), and also an adherent to Camillo Sittes’s ideas, responded largely. The Bagaregården and Kungsladugård in Gothenburg are among the largest and most consistent areas in Sittes anda. Here, according to architect Arvid Fuhr’s drawings, the Gothenburg typical landshövdinge houses were constructed with a stone and two-story floor in wood.
On Kungsgatan, a four-story high- rise building was built by FO Peterson & Söner for the Meeths department store. It is an example of department store architecture from the early 1900s with its light farm and large display window. Within the National romance built including Baker Farm School, Masthuggskyrkan and Röhss Museum.
The Åkermyntan quarter
Meeths on Kungsgatan
In Gothenburg there are several examples of areas inspired by the English Garden City. Including Örgryte Garden City, Landala Egnahem and Bagaregården. In connection with the Jubilee Exhibition in Gothenburg in 1923, most of today’s more well-known buildings were built: Liseberg, Museum of Natural History, Slottskogsvallen and the Swedish Exhibition Center. At the top of Avenyn is the Gothenburg Art Museum and Gothenburg Art Hall behind the characteristic sculpture Poseidon designed by Carl Milles. The buildings were designed by architects Arvid Bjerke and Sigfrid Ericson and were also built in 1919-1923 for the 300th anniversary of the city. During the 1960s and 1990s, the Art Museum has received more modern additions. Next to Konsthallen and the Art Museum is the Gothenburg Concert Hall of Nils Einar Eriksson, which was completed in 1935. Nils Einar Eriksson also designed the Center House. In 1927 the high-rise Otterhall, which was called the skyscraper, was built.
Ingrid Wallberg and Alfred Roth created residential houses for HSB, but also functionalistic villas. An example of Wallberg’s functionalism is Gothenburg’s first functionalitarian housing area (1934-1943 in Bö in Örgryte. Ströms hörn is an early example of renowned architecture architecture in department stores construction in Gothenburg.
Townhouse on Brödragatan
Gothenburg City Theater
The movie Flamman
In Gothenburg, Tage William-Olsson was City Planning Director between 1943 and 1953, where he succeeded Uno Åhrén, who had been in service since 1932. William-Olsson mainly engaged in housing issues and planned new neighborhoods and developed house types. Over a ten-year period, plans were planned for 34,000 apartments; among them Bagaregården (1944), Tolered (1946), Kungsladugård (1947), Södra Guldheden (1948) and Kortedala (1952). Immediately after the integration of Västra Frölunda Landskommun with the city of Gothenburg in 1945, it began to build what is today Högsbo. The City of Gothenburg’s residential housing company built Biskopsgården during the 1950s.
The first stage of the “New Goldenness” was opened on August 17, 1945, by Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf, when the exhibition Bo Better in Northern Goldenness was launched. Northern Goldenness was then Sweden’s first so-called Neighborhood Unit, built to showcase the collective housing functionality of the future. 1955 was Torsten Henrikson city secretary and manager for urban planning department. In that function he initiated and implemented the construction of, among others, Valhallabadet and Nya Ullevi. Among the companies in Gothenburg are Volvo andSKF ‘s new headquarters in Torslanda and Gamlestaden.
In 1964 Gothenburg took over the leadership of the country’s demolition operations. Unlike in Stockholm, where demolitions had taken place since the early 1900s to solve traffic problems, Gothenburg’s demolitions affected residential areas outside the city center. In 1960, the rehabilitation company Göta Lejon was formed in equal parts of the municipality and the business community. Looking at the total number of demolitions in Gothenburg between 1959 and 1974, roughly equal numbers of apartments in both cities were demolished. In proportion to the population, it is thus twice as much in Gothenburg. Many of the city’s famous landshövdinge houses disappeared during this demolition wave.
Angered county municipality was incorporated in 1967 with the city of Gothenburg. Angered was built from south to north: Hjällbo 1966, Hammarkullen 1968, Gårdsten 1969, Lövgärden 1970 and Rannebergen in 1971. In retrospect, a district center in 1978, Angereds Centrum, was built.
Doctor Fries square
Volvo PV’s headquarters
In 1971 Scandinavium was ready. In 1972 the largest part of Nordstan was completed. It had then been built a whole new neighborhood where the old man had lived and also built up all the neighborhoods and houses with thanksgiving. Nordstan is today a shopping mall and consists of office properties. Along with East Hamngatan, major banks built representative offices. Nordstans P-house was completed in 1972 and was designed by WAAB White Architectural Office. At the end of the 1970s, cultural centers outside the city center followed the Blå Sted i Angered (1979) and Frölunda Kulturhus (1980).
In the 1980s a more postmodernist architecture followed. AB Volvo built a new headquarters of Romaldo Giurgola 1982-1984. Skanskaskrapan, a characteristic red and white skyscraper at Göta River, was designed by Ralph Erskine in collaboration with White Architects and was established in 1986-89. White architects were also responsible for the new Post Terminal 1978-1987 and the first part of Hotel Gothia Towers in 1984. Another skyscraper from the same period is the Gårda Business Center, which was completed in 1989. During the 1990s, new public buildings followed as the Artist,Gothenburg Opera (1994), University of Gothenburg School of Economics (1995) and Nils Ericson Terminal awarded to Kasper Salin Prize 1996.
On the Norra Älvstranden with the Lindholmen area there is Lindholmen Science Park. The cog in Lindholmen Science Park has won the award for its innovative architecture. At the MIPIM International Real Estate Fair organized annually in Cannes, the Kuggen received a prize in the “Sustainable buildings” class and the project was selected as one of two among 300 listed in the Future Projects Awards. Västra Lindholmen and Eriksberg are now rapidly expanding residential areas and consist mostly of housing and rental rights built in the 21st century. Here, old buildings are mixed from the shipyard (Eriksbergs shipyard with Eriksbergshallen and bucket crane) with newbuildings.
Södra Älvstranden is an ongoing urban development project in Gothenburg located along the southern shore of Göta älv. In the program for the area’s urban development, the municipality has established the desire for a neighborhood with mixed features that utilizes the waterfront situation. Several parallel assignments are evaluated by a group from, among other things, Gothenburg City Planning Office and Älvstranden Development. In 2009, the detailed plan for consultation, views was compiled and a new proposal is expected to be published at the beginning of 2011. In 2014, the track will be ready and the first occupation will take place in 2015.
The World Culture Museum received the Kasper Salin Prize for the best building of the year. Ryaverket’s disc filter plant, designed by KUB architects, won the Kasper Salin Prize 2010. In Gårda, the Green Scraper has become a new landmark along the E6.
Museum of World Cultures
The disk filter plant at Ryaverket
The cog in Lindholmen Science Park
Channel House (SVT, SR, UR)
Source from Wikipedia