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Architecture history of Portugal

Since the second millennium before the birth of Christ, which exist in the territory now known as Portugal, important buildings in the panorama of national architecture. Built before the arrival of the Romans, the Citânia de Briteiros in Guimarães is a good example of the native architecture, developed in the Iron Age. The houses were round, made of granite, without mortar, and organized in Castros – small communities high in the mountains, surrounded by defensive structures.

Roman period
Portuguese architecture developed significantly with the arrival of the Romans in the second century BC, evolving into a more Mediterranean style already existing at the time. The Romans built a considerable set of infrastructure and support structures for the most important settlements, such as roads, aqueducts and bridges. There are many vestiges of that time spread throughout the national territory, fulfilling varied functions such as dwellings, theaters, temples and other public buildings. Conímbriga, the Roman Theater and the Termas dos Augustais in Lisbon, the Roman Temple in Évora and the Ruins of Cerro da Vila in Vilamoura are good examples of this.

Muslim period
In the 8th century the Iberian Peninsula was occupied by the Muslims. Roman influences on architecture had already been lost after the barbarian invasions. The cities were clumps of poorly equipped houses, the streets were open-air sewers, and churches were erected to worship the newly established Christian religion. The Muslims brought new life to civil, military and religious architecture. Mosques and palaces were erected, organizing the cities of the time. The most commonly used materials were the taipa sometimes interspersed with stone masonry. The typical color of Muslim buildings is white as they fell the exteriors.

Romanic (1100 – 1230)
Under the command of Count Henry, founder of the House of Burgundy in Portugal, a group of French nobles and monks gradually introduced the Romanesque in the country. During the Reconquest many churches were built in this style, with the intention of reconverting the populations to the Christian faith. It is due to the fact that the reconquest departed from the north of Portugal, which south of Lisbon, there is no vestige of Romanesque architecture.

There are two types of Romanesque in Portugal:

The Romanesque of French influence, closely related to the style of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia. (Sé Velha de Coimbra and Sé de Lisboa) There are two ways of designing churches of French influence:
Church oriented to the West, usually with two bell towers and three naves in cradle vault.
Church orientated to East, with three naves in cradle vault and a bell-tower on the transept; the central nave ends in an apse with three radiant chapels.
The Romanesque style derives from the Abbey of Cluny. (Sé de Braga)
However the Portuguese Romanesque churches fled somewhat to the original style resembling more great fortresses due to thick walls and few openings.

The beginning of the construction of the Cathedral of Évora ends the Romanesque period in Portugal, which, unlike the other European countries, entered the thirteenth century.

Gothic (c.1230 – c.1450)
The Gothic arrived later in Portugal than in the rest of Europe mainly focusing is in the center of the country, mainly spread by the mendicant orders. Many Romanesque churches and sés were widened with a gothic transept or with elements of that style. Examples are the Cathedral of Porto, the Cathedral of Évora and the Convent of Christ in Tomar.

The Monastery of Alcobaça (begun in 1178, according to the Cistercian Abbey in France) was the first Gothic building to be built in Portugal, together with the Monastery of Santa Cruz in Coimbra, one of the most important Portuguese medieval monasteries.

The splendor and beauty of the Portuguese Gothic churches hardly faces many others scattered throughout Europe, however, the Monastery of Batalha, architecturally, surpasses all other national buildings of the time. The flaming Gothic of course the lines of the monastery, approaching the very international gothic

Late Gothic – The Manueline (c.1490 – c.1520)
The profits of the spice trade in the first decades of the sixteenth century financed a sumptuous transition style, later named Manueline given that it was in the reign of Manuel I that most of the buildings were started. Manueline mixes the final Gothic with Renaissance elements, the influence of contemporary Plateresque, Elizabethan, and Italian, Flemish and Mudejar elements. It is distinguished by the luxuriant decoration, with naturalistic marine motifs, ropes and a rich variety of animals and plant motifs. It reveals the growing taste for exoticism since the beginning of expansion. The first known Manueline building is the Jesus Monastery of Setúbal (1490-1510) by the architect Diogo Boitaca, considered one of the creators of the style, in which he collaborated with the French sculptor Nicolau de Chanterene. The nave of the church, supported by spiral columns, reveals the attempt to unify the interior space in a church-hall, characteristic of the Portuguese renaissance, which reaches its climax in the church of the Jerónimos Monastery, completed in 1520 by the architectJoão de Castilho. The same happens in the See of the Guard, in the parish churches of Olivença, Freixo de Espada a Cinta, Montemor-o-Velho and others. There are also elaborate portals with spiral columns, niches and Renaissance and Gothic motifs, such as the Monastery of Santa Cruz de Coimbra and the specious door of the Old Cathedral of Coimbra. The Torre de Belém by Francisco de Arruda and the window of the Chapter of the Convent of Christ are well-known examples of the Manueline style, which extends to other arts, such as the illumination and goldsmithery (custody of Bethlehem).

Renaissance and Mannerism (c.1520 – c.1650)
The austere Renaissance classicism did not prosper in Portugal. Introduced from the 1530s by foreign architects, it evolved naturally, but slowly, to Mannerism. The painter and architect Francisco de Holanda in the book “Dialogues on Ancient Painting” disseminated its foundations.

The Hermitage of Our Lady of the Conception (Tomar), 1532-1540, by the Castilian Diogo de Torralva is a good example of the pure Renaissance style in Portugal. The small church of the Convento do Bom Jesus de Valverde, in Évora, attributed to Manuel Pires and Diogo de Torralva, is another. Of the Renaissance civil architecture examples are the house of the beaks of 1523 and the palace of Bacalhoa.

Larger testimonies of this style are the Church of São Roque (Lisbon), begun in 1555 by Afonso Álvares, one of the few large Lisbon buildings that survived the earthquake of 1755, and the magnificent two-story cloister of D. João III in the Convent of Christ in Tomar initiated by Diogo de Torralva in 1557. Concluded years later already during the reign of Philip II by the Italian real architect Filippo Terzi, both would come to evolve to the mannerism, of which the cloister is considered one of the most important Portuguese examples.

Notable Portuguese architect in this period, the works of Afonso Álvares include the Church of São Roque (Lisbon), which would later evolve into a Mannerist style. He designed the Cathedral of Leiria (1551 – 1574), the Cathedral of Portalegre (1556), and the Church of San Roque in Lisbon. The latter was made by the Italian architect Filippo Terzi, who also built the Jesuit College of Évora, the Church of St. Vincent de Fora in Lisbon and the Episcopal Palace in Coimbra. In addition to the many churches he built, he also designed fortresses and aqueducts. Under the influence of Terzi many Portuguese architects were formed, of which they stood out:

Miguel de Arruda – Church of Our Lady of Grace, Évora;
Baltasar Álvares – Sé Nova de Coimbra and the Church of São Lourenço in Oporto.
Francisco Velázquez – Cathedral of Miranda do Douro and the Monastery of San Salvador de Grijó.
Manuel Pires (military engineer) – Church of Santo Antão in Évora.

Architecture tea (1580 – 1640)
During the Philippine dominion, Portugal and Spain were united, and a new style was developed to the Architecture plain or Chão Style (plain architecture in English) proposed by George Kubler. It was basically Mannerist, but with a clear and robust structure, with smooth surfaces and little decoration. It is a great break with Manuelino, because this one was quite decorative. This more contained and simplistic style was due mainly to the economic limitations of the time. As resistance to the Baroque, which was already in force in neighboring Spain, in Portugal continued to be used the architectureto demonstrate the difference of identities of the two nations, which were then united. There were some architects who stood out at that time, such as:

Baltasar Alvares – Church of the Grilos (1614) in Porto and the Church of Santo Antão (1613 – 1656), in Lisbon, which nowadays no longer exists.
João Turriano – Remodeling of the Monastery of Tibães and the Monastery of São Bento.
Francisco de Mora) – Convent of Our Lady of Remedies (1601 – 1614), in Évora.
Pedro Nunes Tinoco – Church of Santa Marta (1616), in Lisbon.
When King Philip II made his triumphal entry into Lisbon in 1619, a few arches of provisional triumph were erected in the Flemish style of Hans Vredeman de Vries. It was also at this time that the azulejo and the gilded carving were affirmed with important decorative elements in the Portuguese religious architecture.

The architecture of the Restoration (1640 – 1717)
The Baroque appears in the international architecture within the scope of the Counter-Reformation, that is, as a reaction of the Catholic Church to the insurgency of Protestantism in Europe. However, since in Portugal the ideas of Martin Luther were not followed, the Baroque was not closely linked to the Portuguese culture. Moreover, the style was already associated with Spain and the Jesuits.

Therefore, instead of a new style, it moved directly from the château architecture to a late Baroque as soon as Portugal restored its independence in 1640. These were times of misery and economic decadence, military and consequently cultural, losing any kind of desire for grandiose projects.

The nobility was the first to win again. A good example of this is the Palace of the Marquises de Fronteira (1667) in the parish of São Domingos de Benfica in Lisbon. This manor house still follows the Italian mannerist lines, but you can already see a great baroque influence in the harmony of the house and the surrounding gardens. The tile panels covering the walls show warlike episodes and equestrian portraits, among others, created by Jan van Oort and Willem van der Kloet in Amsterdam.

Still to be highlighted in this period are the architects:

Jacome Mendes – Church of Our Lady of Mercy (1665) in Santarém.
João Turriano – Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Nova (1649 – 1696) in Coimbra.
João Nunes Tinoco – allegedly made the Mother Church of Portimão (1660).
In the period between 1690 and 1717 there was a slow introduction to the Baroque in Portugal.

The Church of Santa Engrácia (now National Pantheon), began to be built in 1682, by João Nunes Tinoco, and was continued by João Antunes. It is a centered structure, built in the shape of a Greek cross – cross with all arms of the same size – topped by a huge dome, which was only completed in 1966 (hence the expression Obras de Santa Engrácia used to characterize delayed works). The facades are undulating like the Baroque style of Borromini. It is, perhaps, the only truly Baroque building in the whole country.

Baroque (1670 – 1755)
The year 1697 is an important date for Portuguese architecture. In that year was discovered in Minas Gerais, in Brazil, gold, precious stones and diamonds. The extraction of these materials greatly enriched the Portuguese crown, which applied very high taxes for its exploitation. This event made Portugal the most prosperous and wealthy country in eighteenth-century Europe. King John V tried to rival the French king Louis XIV, the Sun King, building as many luxurious buildings as possible. The Portuguese king, unlike Louis XIV, had no national architects available to execute his megalomaniac plans. Therefore, the big money coming from Brazil served to hire architects who projected numerous works, some of them not even finished.

The Mafra Convent is one of the most sumptuous Baroque buildings in the country. This monumental complex of religious infrastructures was designed by Johann Friedwig Ludwig (known in Portugal by João Frederico Ludovice). Ludovice’s project attempts to synthesize St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican City, the Church of Sant’Ignazio in Rome and the Palazzo Montecitorio in one building. This was due to the king’s desire to have the Eternal City on the banks of the River Tagus.

Other important works:

Águas Livres Aqueduct (1729 – 1748) in Lisbon, Manuel da Maia, Antonio Canevari and Custódio Vieira. It supplied water to the city along with many fountains designed by the Hungarian Carlos Mardel.
Quinta de Santo Antão do Tojal (1728 – 1732) by the Italian architect Antonio Canevari.
Palace of Necessities (1750) by Caetano Tomás de Sousa.
Palace of Queluz (1755 – 1758) by Mateus Vicente de Oliveira, Manuel Caetano de Sousa and Jean-Baptiste Robillon. It is one of the best example of the baroque in Portugal although its façade has some details in the rococo style.
Royal Theater of the Opera of the Tagus (1755 – 1755) of Giovanni Carlo Sicinio Galli of Bibbiena (1717-1760). Inaugurated on March 31, 1755 with the opera Alessandro Nell’Indie by Pietro Metastasio and music by the Neapolitan composer David Perez. It was destroyed on 1 November 1755 as a result of the Lisbon Earthquake.

The Baroque evolved naturally into the Rococo. It was developed mainly in the north of the country. An example of this time is the work of the Italian architect Nicolau Nasoni, the church and the Tower of the Clerics in Porto.

The Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte, near Braga, designed by Carlos Amarante is a notable example of the rococo, containing a Baroque staircase with 116 m.

Pombalino style (1755 – 1780)

In the earthquake of 1755 and the tsunami that followed destroyed much of the Portuguese capital. D. Jose I and his Prime Minister Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, the Marquis of Pombal organized a group of men to rebuild downtown.

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The Pombalino is again, like the Chã architecture, fruit of the need and the spirit of initiative of Portugal. It receives this name due to the Marquis of Pombal, powerful minister of D. Joseph, main promoter of the reconstruction and true ruler of the kingdom, without which would not have been possible work of such great scale. Also important is the reference to the architects Eugénio dos Santos, Manuel da Maia and Carlos Mardel, true authors of the proposals presented. It is a kind of intelligent architecture and very well designed, to include the first anti-seismic system and the first method of large-scale prefabricated constructionin the world. It consists of a flexible wooden structure inserted in the walls, floors and roofs, later covered by prefabricated building materials, which, as it was said at the time, “fires but does not fall”. Downtown Lisbon, the most affected area, is built in an unstable area, and it is necessary to strengthen the entire area. Another anti-seismic system is used, consisting of a real forest of buried piles. These, as they are exposed to salt water, do not run the risk of rotting while retaining their natural elasticity. The city was protectedin a revolutionary way, and undoubtedly for the first time in the world on this scale. The prefabricated system is completely innovative for the time. The building is entirely manufactured outside the city, transported in parts, and later assembled on site. For the first time a city is built on these terms. Although the reconstruction works of the city dragged on until the nineteenth century, a few years later, still in the king’s lifetime, the population was duly housed and with conditions that did not exist before the earthquake.

The city is completely modified. The streets of medieval layout, with labyrinthine aspect, give place to an orthogonal rectilinear tracing, regularizing the area comprised between the old squares of the city, Rossio and Terreiro do Paço, also corrected and ordered. The spaces are ample, allowing illumination and aeration conditions that do not exist in the medieval city. The Commerce Square, without the Royal Palace, transferred to Ajuda, is open to the river Tagus and is designed to receive the various ministries. It is dominated by two twin turrets, inspired by the old turret of the Royal Palace, monumentalized by a statue of King D. José, by Machado de Castro, and receives an arch of triumph, built only in the nineteenth century according to draft different from the original, symbolizing triumph over the earthquake. It’s the square of power. The Rossio loses the old and shattered Hospital of All Saints, and becomes the ” forum ” of the city, trying to maintain the popular character despite the elegant buildings. The streets are hierarchized conditioning the typology of buildings built.

The Pombalino building is a structure up to four floors, with arcades for shops on the ground floor, balconies or balconieson the first floor and penthouse water. All the constructions follow the same typology, being added decorative details in the facade according to the importance of the place. The buildings are isolated by fire breaks and respecting the maximum volume imposed – it was considered that the four floors were the ideal in case of a new catastrophe. The building of the palaces is also regulated, forcing a sobriety without ostentation, very unpopular among the aristocracy, allowing decorative effects only in the portal and windows a little more elegant than the residential buildings. The churches follow the spirit of the time. The number is drastically reduced, following the same constructive principles, some exterior architectural decoration and well-defined typologies. They are buildings of single nave with lateral altars,Pedro Alexandrino de Carvalho) and sculpture. The spaces are pleasant, soft, bright and, despite the prefabricated construction, well to Rococó taste. Of particular note are the churches of Santo António da Sé (where Santo António was born), the Incarnation, Santo Domingo, Magdalena, Martyrs and many others. Maintaining the aesthetic vocabulary and prefabricated decorative elements there was the concern to individualize them. In less destroyed buildings it was tried to harmonize the pombaline forms with the existing decoration.

The Pombaline, despite being despotically imposed in Lisbon, pleased and was built elsewhere, the main example being Vila Real de Santo António in the Algarve.

Simplicity is total. This spirit of functionality, eliminating all that is superfluous, including decoration, imposing a rational sobriety, is no longer really Rococo. It reflects the spirit of Enlightenment and a strong neoclassical character, still without classical architectural orders, but subjecting the accessory to reason. This detail has been systematically forgotten by the history of art, desiring to see either French Rococo or traditional neoclassicism in a constructive program that is too modern and modern for its time.

Neoclassicism (. 1780 – end of the XIX sec)
Due to the fact that it appears in a very troubled time, Neoclassicism in Portugal develops in a very own way, debating with artistic and economic problems, imposing a periodization different from the rest of Europe. It is very early in the development of a pre-classical architecture, which remains throughout the late eighteenth century. In the second half of the century, a little later than in the rest of Europe, arises mainly in Lisbon and Porto, Neoclassicism, to see, at the beginning of the 19th century, a near-stop of artistic programs. This is due to the great instability caused by a succession of overwhelming events for the country, namely the flight of the royal family to Brazil in 1807 (a fact of fundamental importance for the two countries), French invasions, subsequent / a liberal revolution in 1820, the return of the royal family in 1821, the independence of Brazil, and the loss of colonial commerce in 1822. Shortly afterwards, the absolutist revolution began, resulting in liberal wars, which maintained instability until 1834, allowing normal artistic development and economic only in the middle of the century. In view of the above, it is no wonder that the style remains, alongsideRomanticism, until the beginning of the 20th century. It is considered that in international terms Neoclassicism arises between 1750 and 1760, while in Portugal, for the reasons presented above, it begins to develop during the 1770s, with the construction of the Royal Riding (current National Car Museum), in Lisbon, and Hospital de Santo António in Oporto.

Quite curious fact is the clear difference between the two cities. Lisbon receives Italian influences due to its dominant taste in court, while the city of Porto, as a result of the important British community, develops buildings of strong English influence, sometimes almost Palladian like the Hospital of Santo António. However the strong functionalist character is one of the common characteristics between the two poles. Subsequently, due to the fact that the students of art finish their studies in Rome, the north converts to Roman classicism to the detriment of Palladianism.

Basically it can be considered that the Portuguese neoclassical building is simple, very functional, subjecting everything to the utilitarian character, symmetry, three bodies being the suggested central or little advanced, pilasters, few columns, balconies or balconies, arcade on the ground floor functioning as basement (rusticado or not), balustrades, with little or no sculptural decoration, this being essentially architectonic (perhaps a consequence of the difficult times, but also, no doubt, as a reflection of the very practical pombaline simplicity). However this statement is too reductive because when studying the individual buildings we perceive a great diversity of solutions. The examples are numerous, varying between simpler but very striking buildings, such as the English factory in Porto or the baths of São Paulo in Lisbon,São Carlos National Theater, D. Maria II National Theater, Ajuda National Palace and Palácio de São Bento (Parliament) in Lisbon, or Hospital de Santo António and Palácio da Bolsa in Porto. There are also several examples, such as churches, palaces or public buildings throughout the country.

Early 20th century. XX (1900-1920)

New art
Industrial Architecture
First Modernism (1920-1940)
Pardal Monteiro stands out as arch. of the new generation projects several buildings, the dwelling in Av. 5 de Outubro (Primo Valmor), the Superior Technical Institute, the Train Station of the Cais do Sodré.

After the installation of the dictatorship, buildings with a good quality such as the Cinema Éden and the Hotel Vitória, both of Cassiano Branco, continue to be projected and built. After a hiatus of five years the Valmor Prize is attributed to the Church of Our Lady of Fátima designed by Pardal Monteiro, generating some controversy the markedly modernist building in 1938. The architectural set is punctuated by several interventions of artists, being the stained glass windows of Almada Negreiros important in the lighting of the altar that lies to the west.

Modern Architecture and the New State (1933-1974)
With the installation of a totalitarian regime through the Revolution of 1926, depositing the fragile republic, it was necessary to create an architectural language that would support the new image of Portugal. This process was consolidated and had its top exponent under the tutelage of Duarte Pacheco as Minister of Public Works and Communications, in his second term, accumulating the position with the Mayor of Lisbon. There was a variety of attitudes of architects and artists before the regime, some of them collaborators more resistant, without losing quality in the architecture. During these four decades numerous proposals and plans of development for the whole country were developed, being privileged the capital of the empire – Lisbon.

Various sets of works can be defined, both individually and collectively, and the dating for decades in this case is not adequate due to the chronological prolongation of some works and tendencies that naturally overlap and the occurrence of various facts, phenomena and social movements during the dictatorship that will shape and found diverse movements of action and reflection on the architecture. However, the use of the decades during the period of the new state for a chronological organization of projects and works is emphasized, facilitating their diachronic reading.

Works with great identity were constructed, from the soft Portuguese of Raul Lino – in search of a lost bucolic rurality, the modernism of Pardal Monteiro – exercising several programs and declining the style with a rigor of excellence, the plans of the parks of Keil do Amaral or the elegant sumptuosity of Cassiano Branco in the existing Hotel Vitória or in the late-film Eden theater.

Each decade had the stamp of some creators in particular, but in the fifties the proposals of sets of buildings that contained a content of program and ideology expressed in the houses were prolific. The stakes neighborhood, the infante santo and united avenues of america represent urban paradigms, each with its well-defined identity and ideology. In the following decade, the complex of buildings gave rise to urban plans that went further than the neighborhoods. The urban plans of the Olivais and Chelas opened the future of the East of Lisbon.

OI Architecture Congress
The glimpse of Democracy in 1945, with the end of World War II, led to the drafting of a manifesto for the holding of free elections. After the guarantee of a member of the Government in not revealing the identity of the subscribers, the opposite happens, with a wave of repression that resulted in dismissals, dismissals and sanctions.

The ICAT – Iniciativas Culturales Arte e Técnica – in Lisbon and ODAM- Organization of Modern Architects in Porto. The I Architecture Congress is held in 1948, with the launch of the critical bases for several problems related to architecture. In this congress intellectual positions are defined, with different interpretations of certain principles, which will give rise to several differences in the way of approaching the exercise of the profession. According to Pedro Vieira de Almeida, it is natural that “they have felt it as a compromise of their moral independence, which only reveals again aspects of the theoretical fragility of their training in professional terms.” The influences of Le Corbusier and the letter of Athens are heard in most of the theses presented. Nuno Teotónio Pereira and Costa Martins constitute an exception referring to the symbolic dimensions of daily life architecture.

The headquarters of the Gulbenkian Foundation is unavoidable in this context, witnessing the transition from the new state to the revolution.

The SAAL Project
Eighties – The postmodern
During this decade there was a consolidation of the profession of architect, gaining a prominence that came to be confirmed in the following decades, existing several buildings that constitute paradigms of the intellectual position of the authors.

The theoretical influence of Aldo Rossi and Roberto Venturi had been assimilated with different interpretations by every architect since the sixties. This fact led to a plurality of theoretical and practical positions, very evident in the Lisbon school and more discreet in the Oporto school. From the generations of architects of the sixties and seventies, with practice in the urbanization of the city, stands Tomás Taveira, who would come to personify the status of postmodern architect in all directions.

The course of Taveira already demonstrated a mastery of several languages and architectural programs, culminating in the project of the Amoreiras shopping center. The influence of Michael Graves is clear, but the most striking of the building in question is the way it was assimilated by Portuguese society, being today the best example we have of the postmodern media. Considered offensive by its aesthetic was nevertheless its poetic that came to perpetuate it like synthesis between the popular and the scholar.

Alongside this production centered on the capital, Siza Vieira offers us a very different view of the postmodern, with the rehabilitation of the Chiado, challenged by some members of the class for lack of boldness and restraint in the development of the program. Thirty years later, we have the House of Stories as a good example of this discreet interpretation of the Porto school by the architect Eduardo Souto de Moura.

All these examples are based on Rossi’s interpretative assumption, in which he “places his expectations of communication on the capacity of the form to activate the deep layers of consciousness” and “simultaneously arouse levels of collective and individual memory” according to Denise Xavier.

Years Ninety

Contemporary Architecture – early 20th century XXI

Portugal’s longstanding traditions, geographic isolation, extended period under an authoritarian government, along with a group of very talented architects, have kept Portuguese architecture clean of capricious imitations. Portugal has an architecture that carefully evolved within the local tradition through a balanced process of absorbing universal influences, until slowly emerging onto the center stage of the architecture world.

One of the top architecture schools in the world, known as “Escola do Porto” or School of Porto, is located in Portugal. Its alumni include Fernando Távora, Álvaro Siza (winner of the 1992 Pritzker prize) and Eduardo Souto de Moura (winner of the 2011 Pritzker prize). Its modern heir is the Faculdade de Arquitectura (School of Architecture) of the University of Porto.

Although Portuguese architecture is usually associated with the internationally accredited Alvaro Siza, there are others equally responsible for the positive trends in current architecture. “Many Portuguese architects are sons of Siza, but Tavora is a grandfather to all of us.” The influence of Sizas own teacher, Fernando Tavora, echoes across generations.

The Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, built in 1960s and designed by Rui Atouguia, Pedro Cid and Alberto Pessoa, is one of the very best, defining examples of 20th-century Portuguese architecture.

In Portugal Tomás Taveira is also noteworthy, particularly due to stadium design. Other renowned Portuguese architects include Pancho Guedes and Gonçalo Byrne.

Carrilho da Graça’s Centro de Documentação da Presidência da República (Documentation Archive of the President of the Portuguese Republic), is one of Lisbon’s best-kept architectural secrets

Source from Wikipedia